Judea (Roman province)

Provincia Ivdaea
ἐπαρχία Ιουδαίας
Province of the Roman Empire
Menora Titus.png
6 CE–135 CEVexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg
Location of Judea
CapitalCaesarea Maritima
32°30′N 34°54′E / 32°30′N 34°54′E / 32.500; 34.900
Prefects before 41, Procurators after 44
 • 6–9 CECoponius
 • 26–36 CEPontius Pilate
 • 64–66 CEGessius Florus
 • 117 CELusius Quietus
 • 130–132 CETineius Rufus
King of the Jews
 • 41–44Agrippa I
 • 48–93/100Agrippa II
LegislatureSynedrion/Sanhedrin
Historical eraRoman Principate
 • Census of Quirinius6 CE
 • Crucifixion of Jesusc. 30 AD
 • Crisis under Caligula37–41 CE
 • Incorporation of Galilee and Peraea44 CE
 • Destruction of the Second TempleAugust 4, 70 CE
 • Governor of praetorian rank & given the 10th Legionc. 74 CE
 • Bar Kokhba revolt132–135 CE 135 CE
Before August 4, 70 is referred to as Second Temple Judaism, from which the Tannaim and Early Christianity emerged.

The Roman province of Judea (ə/; Hebrew: יהודה‎, Standard Yehuda Tiberian Yehûḏāh; Arabic: يهودا‎; Greek: Ἰουδαία Ioudaia; Latin: Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea. It was named after Herod Archelaus's Tetrarchy of Judea, but the Roman province encompassed a much larger territory. The name "Judea" was derived from the Kingdom of Judah of the 6th century BCE.

The province of Judea was the scene of unrest at its founding in 6 CE during the Census of Quirinius, the Crucifixion of Jesus circa 30-33 AD, and several wars, known as the Jewish–Roman wars, were fought in its history. The Second Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE as part of the First Jewish–Roman War, resulting in the institution of the Fiscus Judaicus, and after the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–135), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina, which certain scholars conclude was an attempt to remove the relationship of the Jewish people to the region.[1][2]

Relations with Hasmonean and Herodian dynasties

Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem, by Jean Fouquet

The first intervention of Rome in the region dates from 63 BCE, following the end of the Third Mithridatic War, when Rome made a province of Syria. After the defeat of Mithridates VI of Pontus, Pompey (Pompey the Great) sacked Jerusalem and established Hasmonean prince Hyrcanus II as Ethnarch and High Priest, but he was denied the title of King. A later appointment by Julius Caesar was Antipater the Idumaean, also known as Antipas, as the first Roman Procurator. Herod the Great, Antipater's son, was designated "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate in 40 BCE[3] but he did not gain military control until 37 BCE. During his reign the last representatives of the Hasmoneans were eliminated, and the great port of Caesarea Maritima was built.[4]

He died in 4 BCE, and his kingdom was divided mostly among three of his sons, who became tetrarchs ("rulers of a quarter part", or in this case rather of "thirds"). One of these tetrarchies was Judea, corresponding to the territory of the historic Judea, plus Samaria and Idumea. Herod's son Archelaus ruled Judea so badly that he was dismissed in 6 CE by the Roman emperor Augustus, after an appeal from his own population. Another, Herod Antipas, ruled as tetrarch of Galilee and Perea from 4 BCE to 39 CE, being then dismissed by Caligula. The third tetrarch, Herod's son Philip, ruled over the northeastern part of his father's kingdom.[5]

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