Judaism

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Silver case containing a handwritten Torah ( Museum of Jewish Art and History, Paris)

Judaism (originally from Hebrew יהודה‎, Yehudah, " Judah"; [1] [2] via Latin and Greek) is an ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its foundational text. [3] It encompasses the religion, philosophy and culture of the Jewish people. [4] Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel. [5] Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. The Torah is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, [6] Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world.

Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah. [7] Historically, this assertion was challenged by various groups such as the Sadducees and Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period; the Karaites and Sabbateans during the early and later medieval period; [8] and among segments of the modern non-Orthodox denominations. Modern branches of Judaism such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic. [9] Today, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism ( Haredi Judaism and Modern Orthodox Judaism), Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between these groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition, and the significance of the State of Israel. [10] Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin, eternal and unalterable, and that they should be strictly followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more "traditional" interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews. [11] [12] Historically, special courts enforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly voluntary. [13] Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and rabbis and scholars who interpret them. [14]

The history of Judaism spans more than 3,000 years. [15] Judaism has its roots as a structured religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. [16] Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions. [17] [18] The Hebrews and Israelites were already referred to as "Jews" in later books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title "Children of Israel". [19] Judaism's texts, traditions and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, Islam and the Baha'i Faith. [20] [21] Many aspects of Judaism have also directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law. [22][ page needed] Hebraism is just as important a factor in the development of Western civilization as Hellenism, and Judaism, as the mother religion of Christianity, has considerably shaped Western ideals and morality since the Christian Era. [23]

Jews are an ethnoreligious group [24] and include those born Jewish and converts to Judaism. In 2015, the world Jewish population was estimated at about 14.3 million, or roughly 0.2% of the total world population. [25] About 43% of all Jews reside in Israel and another 43% reside in the United States and Canada, with most of the remainder living in Europe, and other minority groups spread throughout South America, Asia, Africa, and Australia. [25]

Defining characteristics and principles of faith

Defining characteristics

Glass platter inscribed with the Hebrew word zokhreinu – (god) remember us
A 19th-century silver Macedonian Hanukkah menorah

Unlike other ancient Near Eastern gods, the Hebrew God is portrayed as unitary and solitary; consequently, the Hebrew God's principal relationships are not with other gods, but with the world, and more specifically, with the people he created. [26][ page needed] Judaism thus begins with ethical monotheism: the belief that God is one and is concerned with the actions of mankind. [27] According to the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), God promised Abraham to make of his offspring a great nation. [28] Many generations later, he commanded the nation of Israel to love and worship only one God; that is, the Jewish nation is to reciprocate God's concern for the world. [29] He also commanded the Jewish people to love one another; that is, Jews are to imitate God's love for people. [30] These commandments are but two of a large corpus of commandments and laws that constitute this covenant, which is the substance of Judaism.

Thus, although there is an esoteric tradition in Judaism ( Kabbalah), Rabbinic scholar Max Kadushin has characterized normative Judaism as "normal mysticism", because it involves everyday personal experiences of God through ways or modes that are common to all Jews. [31] This is played out through the observance of the Halakha (Jewish law) and given verbal expression in the Birkat Ha-Mizvot, the short blessings that are spoken every time a positive commandment is to be fulfilled.

The ordinary, familiar, everyday things and occurrences we have, constitute occasions for the experience of God. Such things as one's daily sustenance, the very day itself, are felt as manifestations of God's loving-kindness, calling for the Berakhot. Kedushah, holiness, which is nothing else than the imitation of God, is concerned with daily conduct, with being gracious and merciful, with keeping oneself from defilement by idolatry, adultery, and the shedding of blood. The Birkat Ha-Mitzwot evokes the consciousness of holiness at a rabbinic rite, but the objects employed in the majority of these rites are non-holy and of general character, while the several holy objects are non-theurgic. And not only do ordinary things and occurrences bring with them the experience of God. Everything that happens to a man evokes that experience, evil as well as good, for a Berakah is said also at evil tidings. Hence, although the experience of God is like none other, the occasions for experiencing Him, for having a consciousness of Him, are manifold, even if we consider only those that call for Berakot. [32]

Whereas Jewish philosophers often debate whether God is immanent or transcendent, and whether people have free will or their lives are determined, Halakha is a system through which any Jew acts to bring God into the world.

Ethical monotheism is central in all sacred or normative texts of Judaism. However, monotheism has not always been followed in practice. The Jewish Bible ( Tanakh) records and repeatedly condemns the widespread worship of other gods in ancient Israel. [33] In the Greco-Roman era, many different interpretations of monotheism existed in Judaism, including the interpretations that gave rise to Christianity. [34]

Moreover, some have argued that Judaism is a non-creedal religion that does not require one to believe in God.[ citation needed] For some, observance of Jewish law is more important than belief in God per se. [35] In modern times, some liberal Jewish movements do not accept the existence of a personified deity active in history. [36] [37] The debate about whether one can speak of authentic or normative Judaism is not only a debate among religious Jews but also among historians. [38]

Core tenets

13 Principles of Faith:
  1. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is the Creator and Guide of everything that has been created; He alone has made, does make, and will make all things.
  2. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is One, and that there is no unity in any manner like His, and that He alone is our God, who was, and is, and will be.
  3. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, has no body, and that He is free from all the properties of matter, and that there can be no (physical) comparison to Him whatsoever.
  4. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is the first and the last.
  5. I believe with perfect faith that to the Creator, Blessed be His Name, and to Him alone, it is right to pray, and that it is not right to pray to any being besides Him.
  6. I believe with perfect faith that all the words of the prophets are true.
  7. I believe with perfect faith that the prophecy of Moses our teacher, peace be upon him, was true, and that he was the chief of the prophets, both those who preceded him and those who followed him.
  8. I believe with perfect faith that the entire Torah that is now in our possession is the same that was given to Moses our teacher, peace be upon him.
  9. I believe with perfect faith that this Torah will not be exchanged, and that there will never be any other Torah from the Creator, Blessed be His Name.
  10. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, knows all the deeds of human beings and all their thoughts, as it is written, "Who fashioned the hearts of them all, Who comprehends all their actions" ( Psalms 33:15).
  11. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, rewards those who keep His commandments and punishes those that transgress them.
  12. I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah; and even though he may tarry, nonetheless, I wait every day for his coming.
  13. I believe with perfect faith that there will be a revival of the dead at the time when it shall please the Creator, Blessed be His name, and His mention shall be exalted for ever and ever.
Maimonides

Scholars throughout Jewish history have proposed numerous formulations of Judaism's core tenets, all of which have met with criticism. [39] The most popular formulation is Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith, developed in the 12th century. According to Maimonides, any Jew who rejects even one of these principles would be considered an apostate and a heretic. [40] [41] Jewish scholars have held points of view diverging in various ways from Maimonides' principles. [42] [43]

In Maimonides' time, his list of tenets was criticized by Hasdai Crescas and Joseph Albo. Albo and the Raavad argued that Maimonides' principles contained too many items that, while true, were not fundamentals of the faith.

Along these lines, the ancient historian Josephus emphasized practices and observances rather than religious beliefs, associating apostasy with a failure to observe Jewish law and maintaining that the requirements for conversion to Judaism included circumcision and adherence to traditional customs. Maimonides' principles were largely ignored over the next few centuries. [44] Later, two poetic restatements of these principles (" Ani Ma'amin" and " Yigdal") became integrated into many Jewish liturgies, [45] leading to their eventual near-universal acceptance. [46] [47]

In modern times, Judaism lacks a centralized authority that would dictate an exact religious dogma. [14] [48] Because of this, many different variations on the basic beliefs are considered within the scope of Judaism. [42] Even so, all Jewish religious movements are, to a greater or lesser extent, based on the principles of the Hebrew Bible and various commentaries such as the Talmud and Midrash. Judaism also universally recognizes the Biblical Covenant between God and the Patriarch Abraham as well as the additional aspects of the Covenant revealed to Moses, who is considered Judaism's greatest prophet. [42] [49] [50] [51] [52] In the Mishnah, a core text of Rabbinic Judaism, acceptance of the Divine origins of this covenant is considered an essential aspect of Judaism and those who reject the Covenant forfeit their share in the World to Come. [53]

Establishing the core tenets of Judaism in the modern era is even more difficult, given the number and diversity of the contemporary Jewish denominations. Even if to restrict the problem to the most influential intellectual trends of the nineteenth and twentieth century, the matter remains complicated. Thus for instance, Joseph Soloveitchik's (associated with the Modern Orthodox movement) answer to modernity is constituted upon the identification of Judaism with following the halakha whereas its ultimate goal is to bring the holiness down to the world. Mordecai Kaplan, the founder of the Reconstructionist Judaism, abandons the idea of religion for the sake of identifying Judaism with civilization and by means of the latter term and secular translation of the core ideas, he tries to embrace as many Jewish denominations as possible. In turn, Solomon Schechter's Conservative Judaism was identical with the tradition understood as the interpretation of Torah, in itself being the history of the constant updates and adjustment of the Law performed by means of the creative interpretation. Finally, David Philipson draws the outlines of the Reform movement in Judaism by opposing it to the strict and traditional rabbinical approach and thus comes to the conclusions similar to that of the Conservative movement. [54]

Other Languages
Acèh: Yahudi
адыгабзэ: Джурт
Afrikaans: Judaïsme
Alemannisch: Judentum
አማርኛ: አይሁድና
العربية: يهودية
aragonés: Chudaísmo
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܝܗܘܕܝܘܬܐ
arpetan: Judâismo
asturianu: Xudaísmu
azərbaycanca: İudaizm
Bahasa Banjar: Agama Yahudi
Bân-lâm-gú: Iû-thài-kàu
башҡортса: Иудаизм
беларуская: Іўдаізм
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Юдаізм
български: Юдаизъм
Boarisch: Judndum
bosanski: Judaizam
brezhoneg: Yuzevegezh
буряад: Иудаизм
català: Judaisme
Чӑвашла: Иудалăх
Cebuano: Hudaismo
čeština: Judaismus
Cymraeg: Iddewiaeth
dansk: Jødedom
Deitsch: Yuddedum
Deutsch: Judentum
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޔަހޫދީދީން
eesti: Judaism
Ελληνικά: Ιουδαϊσμός
español: Judaísmo
Esperanto: Judismo
estremeñu: Judaísmu
euskara: Judaismo
فارسی: یهودیت
Fiji Hindi: Yahudi
føroyskt: Jødadómur
français: Judaïsme
Frysk: Joadendom
furlan: Ebraisim
Gaeilge: An Giúdachas
Gaelg: Yn Ewaghys
Gàidhlig: Iùdhachd
galego: Xudaísmo
ગુજરાતી: યહૂદી ધર્મ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yù-thai-kau
한국어: 유대교
हिन्दी: यहूदी धर्म
hrvatski: Judaizam
Igbo: Judaism
Ilokano: Hudaismo
Bahasa Indonesia: Agama Yahudi
interlingua: Judaismo
Interlingue: Judeisme
Ирон: Иудаизм
íslenska: Gyðingdómur
italiano: Ebraismo
עברית: יהדות
Basa Jawa: Agama Yahudi
kalaallisut: Juutit
къарачай-малкъар: Иудейлик
ქართული: იუდაიზმი
қазақша: Яһудилік
kernowek: Yedhoweth
Kiswahili: Uyahudi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jidayis
Kurdî: Cihûtî
Кыргызча: Иудаизм
Ladino: Djudaizmo
лезги: Иудаизм
لۊری شومالی: جیدیت
latviešu: Jūdaisms
Lëtzebuergesch: Juddentum
lietuvių: Judaizmas
Ligure: Ebraiximo
Limburgs: Joededom
lingála: Boyúda
македонски: Јудаизам
Malagasy: Jodaisma
മലയാളം: യഹൂദമതം
Malti: Ġudaiżmu
मराठी: ज्यू धर्म
მარგალური: იუდაიზმი
مصرى: يهوديه
مازِرونی: یهودیت
Bahasa Melayu: Agama Yahudi
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Iù-tái-gáu
Mirandés: Judaísmo
монгол: Иудаизм
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျူးဘာသာ
Nāhuatl: Judaísmo
Nederlands: Jodendom
Nedersaksies: Jeudendom
नेपाली: यहुदी धर्म
नेपाल भाषा: यहुद धर्म
日本語: ユダヤ教
Napulitano: Giurieismo
нохчийн: ЯхӀудийн дин
Norfuk / Pitkern: Judaism
norsk: Jødedom
norsk nynorsk: Jødedommen
Nouormand: Judaïsme
occitan: Judaïsme
Oromoo: Judaayizimii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yahudiylik
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਯਹੂਦੀ ਧਰਮ
پنجابی: یہودیت
Papiamentu: Judaismo
پښتو: يهوديت
Patois: Juudizim
Piemontèis: Giudaism
Tok Pisin: Judaisim
Plattdüütsch: Jodendom
polski: Judaizm
português: Judaísmo
qırımtatarca: Yeudilik
Ripoarisch: Jüddedom
română: Iudaism
rumantsch: Giudaissem
Runa Simi: Huriyu iñiy
русиньскый: Юдаїзм
русский: Иудаизм
саха тыла: Иудаизм
Scots: Judaism
Seeltersk: Juudendum
Sesotho sa Leboa: Sejuda
shqip: Jahudizmi
sicilianu: Judaismu
සිංහල: ජුදා ආගම
Simple English: Judaism
slovenčina: Judaizmus
slovenščina: Judovstvo
ślůnski: Judajizm
Soomaaliga: Yuhuuda
српски / srpski: Јудаизам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Judaizam
svenska: Judendom
Tagalog: Hudaismo
தமிழ்: யூதம்
Taqbaylit: Tihudit
татарча/tatarça: Яһүд дине
తెలుగు: జుడాయిజం
тоҷикӣ: Яҳудият
Türkçe: Yahudilik
Türkmençe: Ýehudylykda
українська: Юдаїзм
اردو: یہودیت
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: يەھۇدى دىنى
Tiếng Việt: Do Thái giáo
Võro: Judaism
walon: Djudayisse
文言: 猶太教
Winaray: Judaismo
吴语: 犹太教
Xitsonga: Vuyuda
ייִדיש: יידישקייט
粵語: 猶太教
Zazaki: Cıhudiye
žemaitėška: Jodaėzmos
中文: 犹太教
Kabɩyɛ: Yuudaayism