Jonas Salk

  • jonas salk
    jonas salk candid.jpg
    jonas salk at copenhagen airport (may 1959)
    born
    jonas salk

    (1914-10-28)october 28, 1914
    new york city, u.s.
    diedjune 23, 1995(1995-06-23) (aged 80)
    la jolla, california, u.s.
    resting placeel camino memorial park
    san diego, california
    nationalityamerican
    alma matercity college of new york
    new york university
    university of michigan
    known forfirst polio vaccine
    spouse(s)
    donna lindsay
    (m. 1939; div. 1968)

    françoise gilot
    (m. 1970)
    awardslasker award (1956)
    scientific career
    fieldsmedical research,
    virology, and epidemiology
    institutionsuniversity of pittsburgh
    salk institute
    university of michigan
    doctoral advisorthomas francis jr.
    signature
    jonas salk signature.svg

    jonas edward salk (k/; born jonas salk; october 28, 1914 – june 23, 1995) was an american medical researcher and virologist who developed one of the first successful polio vaccines. he was born in new york city and attended the city college of new york and new york university school of medicine, later choosing to do medical research instead of becoming a practicing physician. he began an internship as a physician scientist at mount sinai hospital in new york city in 1939.[1] two years later, he was granted a fellowship at the university of michigan where he studied flu viruses with his mentor thomas francis jr.[2]

    polio was considered one of the most frightening public health problems in the world until 1955 when the salk vaccine was introduced, and epidemics were increasingly devastating in the post-war united states. the 1952 u.s. epidemic was the worst outbreak in the nation's history, as 3,145 people died and 21,269 were left with mild to disabling paralysis,[3] most of its victims being children. the "public reaction was to a plague", said historian william l. o'neill.[4] according to a 2009 pbs documentary, "apart from the atomic bomb, america's greatest fear was polio."[5] as a result, scientists were in a frantic race to find a way to prevent or cure the disease.

    in 1947, salk accepted an appointment to the university of pittsburgh school of medicine. in 1948, he undertook a project funded by the national foundation for infantile paralysis to determine the number of different types of poliovirus. salk saw an opportunity to extend this project towards developing a vaccine against polio, and he gathered a research team and devoted himself to this work for the next seven years. the field trial set up to test the salk vaccine was, according to o'neill, "the most elaborate program of its kind in history, involving 20,000 physicians and public health officers, 64,000 school personnel, and 220,000 volunteers." over 1.8 million schoolchildren took part in the trial.[6] news was made public of the vaccine's success on april 12, 1955, and salk was hailed as a "miracle worker" and the day almost became a national holiday. an immediate rush to vaccinate began around the world, with countries beginning polio immunization campaigns using salk's vaccine, including canada, sweden, denmark, norway, west germany, the netherlands, switzerland, and belgium.

    salk campaigned for mandatory vaccination, claiming that public health should be considered a "moral commitment".[7] in 1960, he founded the salk institute for biological studies in la jolla, california, which is today a center for medical and scientific research. he continued to conduct research and publish books, and his last years were spent searching for a vaccine against hiv. his personal papers are stored at the university of california, san diego library.[8][9]

  • early life and education
  • polio research
  • becoming a public figure
  • establishing the salk institute
  • aids vaccine work
  • salk's "biophilosophy"
  • personal life
  • honors and recognition
  • salk's book publications
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Jonas Salk
Jonas Salk candid.jpg
Jonas Salk at Copenhagen Airport (May 1959)
Born
Jonas Salk

(1914-10-28)October 28, 1914
DiedJune 23, 1995(1995-06-23) (aged 80)
Resting placeEl Camino Memorial Park
San Diego, California
NationalityAmerican
Alma materCity College of New York
New York University
University of Michigan
Known forFirst polio vaccine
Spouse(s)
Donna Lindsay
(m. 1939; div. 1968)

Françoise Gilot
(m. 1970)
AwardsLasker Award (1956)
Scientific career
FieldsMedical research,
virology, and epidemiology
InstitutionsUniversity of Pittsburgh
Salk Institute
University of Michigan
Doctoral advisorThomas Francis Jr.
Signature
Jonas Salk signature.svg

Jonas Edward Salk (k/; born Jonas Salk; October 28, 1914 – June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist who developed one of the first successful polio vaccines. He was born in New York City and attended the City College of New York and New York University School of Medicine, later choosing to do medical research instead of becoming a practicing physician. He began an internship as a physician scientist at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City in 1939.[1] Two years later, he was granted a fellowship at the University of Michigan where he studied flu viruses with his mentor Thomas Francis Jr.[2]

Polio was considered one of the most frightening public health problems in the world until 1955 when the Salk vaccine was introduced, and epidemics were increasingly devastating in the post-war United States. The 1952 U.S. epidemic was the worst outbreak in the nation's history, as 3,145 people died and 21,269 were left with mild to disabling paralysis,[3] most of its victims being children. The "public reaction was to a plague", said historian William L. O'Neill.[4] According to a 2009 PBS documentary, "Apart from the atomic bomb, America's greatest fear was polio."[5] As a result, scientists were in a frantic race to find a way to prevent or cure the disease.

In 1947, Salk accepted an appointment to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In 1948, he undertook a project funded by the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to determine the number of different types of poliovirus. Salk saw an opportunity to extend this project towards developing a vaccine against polio, and he gathered a research team and devoted himself to this work for the next seven years. The field trial set up to test the Salk vaccine was, according to O'Neill, "the most elaborate program of its kind in history, involving 20,000 physicians and public health officers, 64,000 school personnel, and 220,000 volunteers." Over 1.8 million schoolchildren took part in the trial.[6] News was made public of the vaccine's success on April 12, 1955, and Salk was hailed as a "miracle worker" and the day almost became a national holiday. An immediate rush to vaccinate began around the world, with countries beginning polio immunization campaigns using Salk's vaccine, including Canada, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, West Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Belgium.

Salk campaigned for mandatory vaccination, claiming that public health should be considered a "moral commitment".[7] In 1960, he founded the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, which is today a center for medical and scientific research. He continued to conduct research and publish books, and his last years were spent searching for a vaccine against HIV. His personal papers are stored at the University of California, San Diego Library.[8][9]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Jonas Salk
العربية: جوناس سولك
asturianu: Jonas Salk
azərbaycanca: Conas Solk
تۆرکجه: جوناس سالک
беларуская: Джонас Солк
български: Джонас Солк
català: Jonas Salk
čeština: Jonas Salk
Cymraeg: Jonas Salk
dansk: Jonas Salk
Deutsch: Jonas Salk
eesti: Jonas Salk
Ελληνικά: Τζόνας Σολκ
español: Jonas Salk
Esperanto: Jonas Salk
euskara: Jonas Salk
français: Jonas Salk
Frysk: Jonas Salk
galego: Jonas Salk
한국어: 조너스 소크
hrvatski: Jonas Salk
Bahasa Indonesia: Jonas Salk
íslenska: Jonas Salk
italiano: Jonas Salk
עברית: יונה סאלק
Latina: Ionas Salk
latviešu: Džonass Solks
македонски: Џонас Салк
Malagasy: Jonas Salk
Bahasa Melayu: Jonas Salk
Nederlands: Jonas Salk
norsk: Jonas Salk
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜੋਨਾਸ ਸਾਲਕ
پنجابی: جونس سالک
polski: Jonas Salk
português: Jonas Salk
română: Jonas Salk
русский: Солк, Джонас
Scots: Jonas Salk
Simple English: Jonas Salk
slovenčina: Jonas Salk
slovenščina: Jonas Salk
српски / srpski: Џонас Солк
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jonas Salk
suomi: Jonas Salk
svenska: Jonas Salk
Tagalog: Jonas Salk
Türkçe: Jonas Salk
українська: Джонас Солк
Tiếng Việt: Jonas Salk
Winaray: Jonas Salk
ייִדיש: יונה סאלק