John Tyler

John Tyler
Tyler Daguerreotype (restoration).jpg
Tyler in later years c. 1850–60
10th president of the United States
In office
April 4, 1841 – March 4, 1845
Vice PresidentNone[a]
Preceded byWilliam Henry Harrison
Succeeded byJames K. Polk
10th vice president of the United States
In office
March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841
PresidentWilliam Henry Harrison
Preceded byRichard Mentor Johnson
Succeeded byGeorge M. Dallas
United States Senator
from Virginia
In office
March 4, 1827 – February 29, 1836
Preceded byJohn Randolph
Succeeded byWilliam Cabell Rives
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
In office
March 3, 1835 – December 6, 1835
Preceded byGeorge Poindexter
Succeeded byWilliam R. King
23rd Governor of Virginia
In office
December 10, 1825 – March 4, 1827
Preceded byJames Pleasants
Succeeded byWilliam Branch Giles
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 23rd district
In office
December 17, 1816 – March 3, 1821
Preceded byJohn Clopton
Succeeded byAndrew Stevenson
Personal details
Born(1790-03-29)March 29, 1790
Charles City County, Virginia, U.S.
DiedJanuary 18, 1862(1862-01-18) (aged 71)
Richmond, Virginia, C.S.
Resting placeHollywood Cemetery (Richmond, Virginia)
Political partyNone (1841–1844, 1844–1862)
Other political
Democratic-Republican (1811–1828)
Democratic (1828–1834)
Whig (1834–1841)
Democratic-Republican (1844)
Children15, including Letitia, Robert, David, John Alexander, and Lyon Tyler
ParentsJohn Tyler Sr.
Mary Armisted
Alma materCollege of William and Mary
ProfessionPolitician, lawyer
SignatureCursive signature in ink
Military service
Allegiance United States of America
Branch/serviceCharles City Rifles (Virginia militia company)
Years of service1813

John Tyler (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862)[1] was the tenth president of the United States from 1841 to 1845 after briefly serving as the tenth vice president (1841); he was elected to the latter office on the 1840 Whig ticket with President William Henry Harrison. Tyler ascended to the presidency after Harrison's death in April 1841, only a month after the start of the new administration. He was a stalwart supporter and advocate of states' rights, and as president he adopted nationalist policies only when they did not infringe on the powers of the states. His unexpected rise to the presidency, with the resulting threat to the presidential ambitions of Henry Clay and other politicians, left him estranged from both major political parties.

Tyler, born to a prominent Virginia family, became a national figure at a time of political upheaval. In the 1820s the nation's only political party, the Democratic-Republicans, split into factions. He was initially a Democrat, but opposed Andrew Jackson during the Nullification Crisis, seeing Jackson's actions as infringing upon states' rights, and criticized Jackson's expansion of executive power during the Bank War. This led Tyler to ally with the Whig Party. Tyler served as a Virginia state legislator, governor, U.S. representative, and U.S. senator. He was put on the 1840 presidential ticket to attract states' rights Southerners to a Whig coalition to defeat Martin Van Buren's re-election bid.

With the death of President Harrison after just one month in office, Tyler became the first vice president to succeed to the presidency without election. He served longer than any president in U.S. history not elected to the office. To forestall constitutional uncertainty, Tyler immediately took the oath of office, moved into the White House, and assumed full presidential powers, a precedent that governed future successions and was codified in the Twenty-fifth Amendment. While Tyler did sign into law some of the Whig-controlled Congress's bills, as a strict constructionist he vetoed the party's bills to create a national bank and raise the tariff rates. Believing that the president should set policy rather than Congress, he sought to bypass the Whig establishment, most notably Kentucky Senator Henry Clay. Most of Tyler's Cabinet resigned soon into his term, and the Whigs, dubbing him His Accidency, expelled him from the party. Tyler was the first president to see his veto of legislation overridden by Congress. Although he faced a stalemate on domestic policy, he had several foreign-policy achievements, including the Webster–Ashburton Treaty with Britain and the Treaty of Wanghia with Qing China.

The Republic of Texas separated from Mexico in 1836; Tyler, a firm believer in manifest destiny, saw its annexation as providing an economic advantage to the United States, and worked diligently to make it happen. He initially sought election to a full term as president, but after failing to gain the support of either Whigs or Democrats, he withdrew in support of Democrat James K. Polk, who favored annexation. Polk won the election, and Tyler signed a bill to annex Texas three days before leaving office. Under Polk, the process was completed. When the American Civil War began in 1861, Tyler sided with the Confederacy and won election to the Confederate House of Representatives shortly before his death. Although some have praised Tyler's political resolve, his presidency is generally held in low regard by historians. He is considered an obscure president, with little presence in American cultural memory.[2]

Early life and legal career

John Tyler was born on March 29, 1790; like his future running mate, William Henry Harrison, Tyler hailed from Charles City County, Virginia and was descended from aristocratic and politically entrenched families of English ancestry.[3][4] The Tyler family traced its lineage to colonial Williamsburg in the 17th century. John Tyler Sr., commonly known as Judge Tyler, was a friend and college roommate of Thomas Jefferson and served in the Virginia House of Delegates alongside Benjamin Harrison V, father of William. The elder Tyler served four years as Speaker of the House of Delegates before becoming a state court judge. He subsequently served as governor and as a judge on the U.S. District Court at Richmond. His wife, Mary Marot (Armistead), was the daughter of a prominent plantation owner, Robert Booth Armistead. She died of a stroke when her son John was seven years old.[5]

With two brothers and five sisters, Tyler was reared on Greenway Plantation, a 1,200-acre (5 km2) estate with a six-room manor house his father had built.[b] The Tylers' forty slaves grew various crops, including wheat, corn and tobacco.[6] Judge Tyler paid high wages for tutors who challenged his children academically.[7] Tyler was of frail health, thin and prone to diarrhea throughout life.[8] At the age of twelve, he entered the preparatory branch of the elite College of William and Mary, continuing the Tyler family's tradition of attending the college. Tyler graduated from the school's collegiate branch in 1807, at age seventeen. Among the books that formed his economic views was Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, and he acquired a lifelong love of Shakespeare. His political opinions were shaped by Bishop James Madison, the college's president and namesake of the future president; the bishop served as a second father and mentor to Tyler.[9]

After graduation Tyler read the law with his father, a state judge at the time, and later with Edmund Randolph, former United States Attorney General. Tyler was erroneously admitted to the Virginia bar at the premature age of 19—the admitting judge neglected to ask his age. By this time his father was serving as Governor of Virginia (1808–1811), and the young Tyler started a practice in Richmond, the state capital.[10] In 1813 he purchased Woodburn plantation, and resided there until 1821.[11]

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українська: Джон Тайлер
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粵語: 約翰泰勒