Early life and education
John was born in
Antioch in 349 to Greek parents from
Syria. Different scholars describe his mother Anthusa as a
 or as a Christian, and his father was a high-ranking
 John's father died soon after his birth and he was raised by his mother. He was
baptised in 368 or 373 and
tonsured as a
reader (one of the
minor orders of the Church).
As a result of his mother's influential connections in the city, John began his education under the pagan teacher
 From Libanius, John acquired the skills for a career in
rhetoric, as well as a love of the Greek language and
As he grew older, however, John became more deeply committed to Christianity and went on to study
Diodore of Tarsus, founder of the re-constituted
School of Antioch. According to the Christian historian
Sozomen, Libanius was supposed to have said on his deathbed that John would have been his successor "if the Christians had not taken him from us".
John lived in extreme
asceticism and became a
hermit in about 375; he spent the next two years continually standing, scarcely sleeping, and committing the
Bible to memory. As a consequence of these practices, his stomach and kidneys were permanently damaged and poor health forced him to return to Antioch.
Diaconate and service in Antioch
John was ordained as a
deacon in 381 by Saint
Meletius of Antioch who was not then in communion with Alexandria and Rome. After the death of Meletius, John separated himself from the followers of Meletius, without joining
Paulinus, the rival of Meletius for the bishopric of Antioch. But after the death of Paulinus he was ordained a
presbyter (priest) in 386 by
Evagrius, the successor of Paulinus.
 He was destined later to bring about reconciliation between
Flavian I of Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome, thus bringing those three sees into communion for the first time in nearly seventy years.
In Antioch, over the course of twelve years (386–397), John gained popularity because of the eloquence of his public speaking at the Golden Church, Antioch's cathedral, especially his insightful expositions of Bible passages and moral teaching. The most valuable of his works from this period are his
Homilies on various books of the Bible. He emphasised charitable giving and was concerned with the spiritual and temporal needs of the poor. He spoke against abuse of wealth and personal property:
Do you wish to honour the body of Christ? Do not ignore him when he is naked. Do not pay him homage in the temple clad in silk, only then to neglect him outside where he is cold and ill-clad. He who said: "This is my body" is the same who said: "You saw me hungry and you gave me no food", and "Whatever you did to the least of my brothers you did also to me"... What good is it if the
Eucharistic table is overloaded with golden chalices when your brother is dying of hunger? Start by satisfying his hunger and then with what is left you may adorn the altar as well.
His straightforward understanding of the Scriptures – in contrast to the Alexandrian tendency towards
allegorical interpretation – meant that the themes of his talks were practical, explaining the Bible's application to everyday life. Such straightforward preaching helped Chrysostom to garner popular support. He founded a series of hospitals in Constantinople to care for the poor.
One incident that happened during his service in Antioch illustrates the influence of his homilies. When Chrysostom arrived in Antioch, Flavian, the bishop of the city, had to intervene with Emperor
Theodosius I on behalf of citizens who had gone on a rampage mutilating statues of the Emperor and his family. During the weeks of
Lent in 387, John preached more than twenty homilies in which he entreated the people to see the error of their ways. These made a lasting impression on the general population of the city: many pagans converted to Christianity as a result of the homilies. As a result, Theodosius' vengeance was not as severe as it might have been.
Archbishop of Constantinople
In the autumn of 397, John was appointed
Archbishop of Constantinople, after having been nominated without his knowledge by the
Eutropius. He had to leave Antioch in secret due to fears that the departure of such a popular figure would cause civil unrest.
During his time as Archbishop he adamantly refused to host lavish social gatherings, which made him popular with the common people, but unpopular with wealthy citizens and the clergy. His reforms of the clergy were also unpopular. He told visiting regional preachers to return to the churches they were meant to be serving—without any payout.
His time in Constantinople was more tumultuous than his time in Antioch.
Patriarch of Alexandria, wanted to bring Constantinople under his sway and opposed John's appointment to Constantinople. Theophilus had disciplined four
monks (known as "the
Tall Brothers") over their support of
Origen's teachings. They fled to John and were welcomed by him. Theophilus therefore accused John of being too partial to the teaching of Origen. He made another enemy in
Aelia Eudoxia, wife of Emperor
Arcadius, who assumed that John's denunciations of extravagance in feminine dress were aimed at herself.
 Eudoxia, Theophilus and other of his enemies held a
synod in 403 (the
Synod of the Oak) to charge John, in which his connection to Origen was used against him. It resulted in his deposition and banishment. He was called back by Arcadius almost immediately, as the people became "tumultuous" over his departure, even threatening to burn the royal palace.
 There was an earthquake the night of his arrest, which Eudoxia took for a sign of
God's anger, prompting her to ask Arcadius for John's reinstatement.
Peace was short-lived. A silver statue of Eudoxia was erected in the
Augustaion, near his
cathedral. John denounced the dedication ceremonies as pagan and spoke against the Empress in harsh terms: "Again
Herodias raves; again she is troubled; she dances again; and again desires to receive John's head in a charger",
 an allusion to the events surrounding the death of
John the Baptist. Once again he was banished, this time to the
Around 405, John began to lend moral and financial support to Christian monks who were enforcing the emperors' anti-Pagan laws, by destroying temples and shrines in Phoenicia and nearby regions.
Exile and death
The causes of John's exile are not clear, though
Jennifer Barry suggests that they have to do with his connections to
Arianism. Other historians, including
Wendy Mayer and
Geoffrey Dunn, have argued that "the surplus of evidence reveals a struggle between Johannite and anti-Johannite camps in Constantinople soon after John's departure and for a few years after his death".
 Faced with exile, John Chrysostom wrote an appeal for help to three churchmen:
Pope Innocent I,
Venerius the Bishop of Milan, and the third to
Chromatius, the Bishop of Aquileia.
 In 1872, church historian William Stephens wrote:
The Patriarch of the Eastern Rome appeals to the great bishops of the West, as the champions of an ecclesiastical discipline which he confesses himself unable to enforce, or to see any prospect of establishing. No jealousy is entertained of the Patriarch of the Old Rome by the Patriarch of the New Rome. The interference of Innocent is courted, a certain primacy is accorded him, but at the same time he is not addressed as a supreme arbitrator; assistance and sympathy are solicited from him as from an elder brother, and two other prelates of Italy are joint recipients with him of the appeal.
Pope Innocent I protested John's banishment from Constantinople to the town of
Cappadocia, but to no avail. Innocent sent a delegation to intercede on behalf of John in 405. It was led by
Gaudentius of Brescia; Gaudentius and his companions, two bishops, encountered many difficulties and never reached their goal of entering
John wrote letters which still held great influence in Constantinople. As a result of this, he was further exiled from Cucusus (where he stayed from 404 to 407) to
Pitiunt (Pityus) (in modern
Abkhazia) where his tomb is a
pilgrims. He never reached this destination, as he died at
Comana Pontica on 14 September 407 during the journey. His last words are said to have been "δόξα τῷ θεῷ πάντων ἕνεκεν" (Glory be to God for all things).
Veneration and canonization
John came to be venerated as a saint soon after his death. Almost immediately after, an anonymous supporter of John (known as pseudo-Martyrius) wrote a funeral oration to reclaim John as a symbol of Christian orthodoxy.
 But three decades later, some of his adherents in Constantinople remained in schism.
Saint Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople (434–446), hoping to bring about the reconciliation of the Johannites, preached a homily praising his predecessor in the Church of
Hagia Sophia. He said, "O John, your life was filled with sorrow, but your death was glorious. Your grave is blessed and reward is great, by the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ O graced one, having conquered the bounds of time and place! Love has conquered space, unforgetting memory has annihilated the limits, and place does not hinder the
miracles of the saint."
These homilies helped to mobilize public opinion, and the patriarch received permission from the emperor to return Chrysostom's relics to Constantinople, where they were enshrined in the
Church of the Holy Apostles on 28 January 438. The
Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates him as a "Great Ecumenical Teacher", with
Basil the Great and
Gregory the Theologian. These three saints, in addition to having their own individual commemorations throughout the year, are commemorated together on 30 January, a feast known as the
Synaxis of the
There are several
feast days dedicated to him:
- 27 January, Translation of the relics of Saint John Chrysostom from Comana to Constantinople
- 30 January, Synaxis of the Three Great Hierarchs
- 14 September, Repose of Saint John Chrysostom
- 13 November, Saint John Chrysostom the Archbishop of Constantinople