Javanese calendar

The Javanese calendar (Javanese: ꦥꦤꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦗꦮ, romanized: Pananggalan Jawa) is the calendar of the Javanese people. It is used concurrently with two other calendars, the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar. The Gregorian calendar is the official calendar of the Republic of Indonesia and civil society, while the Islamic calendar is used by Muslims and the Indonesian government for religious worship and deciding relevant Islamic holidays.

The Javanese calendar is used by the main ethnicities of Java island—that is, the Javanese, Madurese, and Sundanese people—primarily as a cultural icon and identifier, and as a maintained tradition of antiquity. The Javanese calendar is used for cultural, metaphysical, and spiritual purposes.[1]

The current system of the Javanese calendar was inaugurated by Sultan Agung of Mataram in the Gregorian year 1633 CE.[2] Prior to this, the Javanese had used the Hindu calendar (Saka), which begins in 78 CE and uses the solar cycle for calculating time.[3] Sultan Agung's calendar retained the Saka calendar year system of counting, but differs by using the same lunar year measurement system as the Islamic calendar, rather than the solar year. Occasionally, the Javanese calendar is referred to by its Latin name Anno Javanico or AJ (Javanese Year).[4]

Calendar cycles

The Javanese calendar contains multiple, overlapping (but separate) measurements of times, called "cycles". These include:

  • the native five-day week, called Pasaran
  • the common Gregorian and Islamic seven-day week
  • the Solar month, called Mangsa
  • the Lunar month, called Wulan
  • the lunar year, or Tahun
  • the octo-ennia (8 year) cycles, or Windu
  • the 120-year cycle of 15 Windu, called Kurup
Year AD/CE Year AJ Muslim
month
2011 1944 5
2012 1945 5
2013 1946 5
2014 1947 6
2015 1948 6
2016 1949 7
2017 1950 7
2018 1951 7
2019 1952 8
2020 1953 8
Year AD/CE Year AJ Muslim
month
2021 1954 8
2022 1955 9
2023 1956 9
2024 1957 10
2025 1958 10
2026 1959 10
2027 1960 11
2028 1961 11
2029 1962 11

Current correlations

The Javanese calendar year of 1941 occurred entirely within the civil calendar year of 2008. Such years occur once every 33 or 34 Javanese years (32 or 33 civil years). More are listed here:

 Javanese year within civil year 
Javanese Civil Difference
1572 1650 78
1605 1682 77
1619 1715 76
1673 1748 75
1706 1780 74
1740 1813 73
1773 1845 72
1807 1878 71
1841 1911 70
1874 1943 69
1908 1976 68
1941 2008 67
1975 2041 66
2008 2073 65
2042 2106 64
2076 2139 63
Other Languages
العربية: تقويم جاوي
Bahasa Indonesia: Kalender Jawa
Nederlands: Javaanse kalender
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Javanski kalendar
中文: 爪哇曆