Japan

Japan
日本国
Nippon-koku
Nihon-koku
Anthem: 

"His Imperial Majesty's Reign" [2] [3]
Government Seal of Japan
  • Seal of the Office of the Prime Minister and the Government of Japan
  • Go-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)
Projection of Asia with Japan's Area coloured green
Area controlled by Japan shown in green; claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Capital
and largest city
Tokyo [4]
35°41′N 139°46′E / 35°41′N 139°46′E / 35.683; 139.767
Official languages None [5]
Recognised regional languages
National language Japanese [7]
Ethnic groups (2011 [8])
Religion
Demonym Japanese
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
•  Emperor
Akihito
Shinzō Abe
Tarō Asō
Legislature National Diet
House of Councillors
House of Representatives
Formation
February 11, 660 BCE [10]
November 29, 1890
May 3, 1947
April 28, 1952
Area
• Total
377,972 km2 (145,936 sq mi) [11] ( 62nd)
• Water (%)
0.8
Population
• 2017 census
126,740,000 [12] ( 11th)
• Density
336/km2 (870.2/sq mi) ( 36th)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$5.420 trillion [13] ( 4th)
• Per capita
$42,860 [13] ( 27th)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$4.841 trillion [13] ( 3rd)
• Per capita
$38,281 [13] ( 20th)
Gini (2008) 37.6 [14]
medium ·  76th
HDI (2015) Increase 0.903 [15]
very high ·  17th
Currency Yen (¥) / En ( JPY)
Time zone JST ( UTC+9)
• Summer ( DST)
not observed ( UTC+9)
Date format
  • yyyy-mm-dd
  • yyyy年m月d日
  • Era yy年m月d日 ( CE−1988)
Drives on the left
Calling code +81
ISO 3166 code JP
Internet TLD .jp
Japan
Japanese name
Kanji 日本国
Hiragana にっぽんこく
にほんこく
Katakana ニッポンコク
ニホンコク
Kyūjitai 日本國

Japan ( Japanese: 日本 Nippon [ɲip̚poɴ] or Nihon [ɲihoɴ]; formally 日本国 About this sound  Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, meaning "State of Japan") is a sovereign island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian mainland, and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the southwest.

The kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin". 日 can be read as ni and means sun, while 本 can be read as hon, or pon and means origin. Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet "Land of the Rising Sun" in reference to its Japanese name.

Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and often are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions; Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one. The population of 127 million is the world's eleventh largest. Japanese people make up 98.5% of Japan's total population. Approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, [16] the capital of Japan.

Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, particularly from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor.

Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, which was ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma, and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism.

The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947 during the occupation by the SCAP, Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.

Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, and the G20 and is considered a great power. [17] [18] [19] The country has the world's third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is also the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most highly educated countries in the world, with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. [20]

Although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, [21] used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a very high standard of living and Human Development Index. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world. [22] [23]

Etymology

The Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nihon or Nippon, and literally means "the origin of the sun". The character nichi () means "sun" or "day"; hon () means "base" or "origin". [24] The compound therefore means "origin of the sun", and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun". [25]

The earliest record of the name "Nihon" appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country. This name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself 'the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises' (日出處天子). The message said: "Here I the emperor of the country where the sun rises send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you."

The " King of Na gold seal", said to have been granted to Na king of Wa (Japan) by Emperor Guangwu of Han in 57 CE. The seal reads "漢委奴國王". Tokyo National Museum

Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as "Yamato" (大和, or Great Wa) and " Wakoku" (倭国) were used. The term Wa () is a homophone of Wo 倭 (pronounced Wa by the Japanese), which has been used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period. [26] However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭 (which has been associated in China with concepts like "dwarf" or "pygmy"), and it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa (), meaning "togetherness, harmony." [27] [28]

The English word Japan possibly derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or possibly early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本 Japan is Zeppen [zəʔpən]. The old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect, probably Fukienese or Ningpo, [29] and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in South East Asia in the 16th century. [30] These Early Portuguese traders then brought the word to Europe. [31] The first record of this name in English is in a book published in 1577 and spelled Giapan, in a translation of a 1565 letter written by a Portuguese Jesuit Luís Fróis. [32] [33]

From the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II, the full title of Japan was Dai Nippon Teikoku (大日本帝國), meaning "the Empire of Great Japan". [34] Today, the name Nihon-koku / Nippon-koku (日本国) is used as a formal modern-day equivalent with the meaning of "the State of Japan"; countries like Japan whose long form does not contain a descriptive designation are generally given a name appended by the character koku (), meaning "country", "nation" or "state".

Other Languages
Acèh: Jeupun
Адыгэбзэ: Япон
адыгабзэ: Японие
Afrikaans: Japan
Akan: Japan
Alemannisch: Japan
አማርኛ: ጃፓን
Ænglisc: Iapan
Аҧсшәа: Иапониа
العربية: اليابان
aragonés: Chapón
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܝܦܢ
arpetan: J·apon
অসমীয়া: জাপান
asturianu: Xapón
Avañe'ẽ: Hapõ
Aymar aru: Nihun
azərbaycanca: Yaponiya
تۆرکجه: ژاپون
বাংলা: জাপান
Bahasa Banjar: Japang
Bân-lâm-gú: Ji̍t-pún
башҡортса: Япония
беларуская: Японія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Японія
भोजपुरी: जापान
Bikol Central: Hapon
Bislama: Japan
български: Япония
Boarisch: Japan
བོད་ཡིག: ཉི་ཧོང་།
bosanski: Japan
brezhoneg: Japan
буряад: Япон Улас
català: Japó
Чӑвашла: Япони
Cebuano: Hapon
čeština: Japonsko
Chamoru: Chapan
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Japón
chiShona: Japan
chiTumbuka: Japan
corsu: Giapponu
Cymraeg: Japan
dansk: Japan
Deitsch: Japan
Deutsch: Japan
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖަޕާނު
dolnoserbski: Japańska
ཇོང་ཁ: ཇཱ་པཱན།
eesti: Jaapan
Ελληνικά: Ιαπωνία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Giapòṅ
español: Japón
Esperanto: Japanio
estremeñu: Japón
euskara: Japonia
eʋegbe: Japan
فارسی: ژاپن
Fiji Hindi: Japan
føroyskt: Japan
français: Japon
Frysk: Japan
furlan: Gjapon
Gaeilge: An tSeapáin
Gagauz: Yaponiya
Gàidhlig: An Iapan
galego: Xapón
贛語: 日本
Gĩkũyũ: Japan
ગુજરાતી: જાપાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: जपान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ngi̍t-pún
한국어: 일본
Hausa: Japan
Hawaiʻi: Iāpana
Հայերեն: Ճապոնիա
हिन्दी: जापान
hornjoserbsce: Japanska
hrvatski: Japan
Ido: Japonia
Ilokano: Hapon
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জাপান
Bahasa Indonesia: Jepang
interlingua: Japon
Interlingue: Japan
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓃᑉᐊᓐ
Iñupiak: Japan
Ирон: Япон
isiXhosa: IJapani
isiZulu: IJapani
íslenska: Japan
italiano: Giappone
עברית: יפן
Basa Jawa: Jepang
kalaallisut: Japani
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಜಪಾನ್
Kapampangan: Hapon
къарачай-малкъар: Япония
ქართული: იაპონია
kaszëbsczi: Japòńskô
қазақша: Жапония
kernowek: Nihon
Kinyarwanda: Ubuyapani
Kiswahili: Japani
коми: Япония
Kongo: Japan
Kreyòl ayisyen: Japon
Kurdî: Japon
Кыргызча: Жапан
кырык мары: Япони
Ladino: Japon
лезги: Япония
لۊری شومالی: جاپون
latgaļu: Japoneja
Latina: Iaponia
latviešu: Japāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Japan
lietuvių: Japonija
Ligure: Giappon
Limburgs: Japan
lingála: Zapɔ́
Livvinkarjala: Japounii
la .lojban.: pongu'e
lumbaart: Giapun
magyar: Japán
मैथिली: जापान
македонски: Јапонија
Malagasy: Japana
മലയാളം: ജപ്പാൻ
Malti: Ġappun
Māori: Nipono
मराठी: जपान
მარგალური: იაპონია
مصرى: اليابان
مازِرونی: جاپون
Bahasa Melayu: Jepun
Baso Minangkabau: Japang
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nĭk-buōng
Mirandés: Japon
мокшень: Японмастор
молдовеняскэ: Жапония
монгол: Япон
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျပန်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Xapon
Dorerin Naoero: Djapan
Nederlands: Japan
Nedersaksies: Japan
नेपाली: जापान
नेपाल भाषा: जापान
日本語: 日本
Napulitano: Giappone
нохчийн: Япони
Nordfriisk: Japan
Norfuk / Pitkern: Japan
norsk: Japan
norsk nynorsk: Japan
Nouormand: Japon
Novial: Japan
occitan: Japon
олык марий: Японий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜାପାନ
Oromoo: Jaappaan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yaponiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਪਾਨ
पालि: जापान
پنجابی: جپان
Papiamentu: Hapon
پښتو: جاپان
Patois: Japan
Перем Коми: Ниппон
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ជប៉ុន
Picard: Japon
Piemontèis: Giapon
Tok Pisin: Siapan
Plattdüütsch: Japan
polski: Japonia
português: Japão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Yaponiya
qırımtatarca: Yaponiya
reo tahiti: Tāpōnē
română: Japonia
rumantsch: Giapun
Runa Simi: Nihun
русиньскый: Японія
русский: Япония
саха тыла: Дьоппуон
sámegiella: Jáhpan
Gagana Samoa: Iapani
संस्कृतम्: जपान्
sardu: Giappone
Scots: Japan
Seeltersk: Japan
Sesotho: Japane
Sesotho sa Leboa: Japane
shqip: Japonia
sicilianu: Giappuni
සිංහල: ජපානය
Simple English: Japan
سنڌي: جاپان
SiSwati: IJaphani
slovenčina: Japonsko
slovenščina: Japonska
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Ꙗпѡнїꙗ
ślůnski: Japůńijo
Soomaaliga: Jabaan
کوردی: ژاپۆن
Sranantongo: Japan
српски / srpski: Јапан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Japan
Basa Sunda: Jepang
suomi: Japani
svenska: Japan
Tagalog: Hapon
தமிழ்: யப்பான்
Taqbaylit: Yapan
tarandíne: Giappone
татарча/tatarça: Япония
తెలుగు: జపాన్
tetun: Japaun
ትግርኛ: ጃፓን
тоҷикӣ: Жопун
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏣᏩᏂᏏ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Japan
ತುಳು: ಜಪಾನ್
Türkçe: Japonya
Türkmençe: Ýaponiýa
Twi: Yapan
тыва дыл: Япония
удмурт: Япония
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: ᨍᨛᨄ
українська: Японія
اردو: جاپان
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ياپونىيە
Vahcuengh: Nditbonj
vèneto: Giapòn
vepsän kel’: Japonii
Tiếng Việt: Nhật Bản
Volapük: Yapän
Võro: Jaapan
文言: 日本
West-Vlams: Japan
Winaray: Hapon
Wolof: Sapoŋ
吴语: 日本
Xitsonga: Japani
ייִדיש: יאפאן
Yorùbá: Japan
粵語: 日本
Zazaki: Japonya
Zeêuws: Japan
žemaitėška: Japuonėjė
中文: 日本
डोटेली: जापान
Kabɩyɛ: Japɔŋ