January

This article is about the month. For other uses, see January (disambiguation).
"Jan." redirects here. For other uses, see Jan.
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January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first month to have the length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere (where it is the second month of winter) and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere (where it is the second month of summer). In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.

Ancient Roman observances during this month include Cervula, and Juvenalia; celebrated January 1, as well as one of three Agonalia, celebrated January 9, and Carmentalia, celebrated January 11. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

History

January (in Latin, Ianuarius) is named after the Latin word for door (ianua), since January is the door to the year and an opening to new beginnings. The month is conventionally thought of as being named after Janus, the god of beginnings and transitions in Roman mythology, but according to ancient Roman farmers' almanacs Juno was the tutelary deity of the month. [1]

Traditionally, the original Roman calendar consisted of 10 months totaling 304 days, winter being considered a month-less period. Around 713 BC, the semi-mythical successor of Romulus, King Numa Pompilius, is supposed to have added the months of January and February, so that the calendar covered a standard lunar year (354 days). Although March was originally the first month in the old Roman calendar, January became the first month of the calendar year either under Numa or under the Decemvirs about 450 BC (Roman writers differ). In contrast, each specific calendar year was identified by the names of the two consuls, who entered office on May 1[ citation needed] or March 15 until 153 BC, from when they entered office on January 1.

Various Christian feast dates were used for the New Year in Europe during the Middle Ages, including March 25 ( Feast of the Annunciation) and December 25. However, medieval calendars were still displayed in the Roman fashion with twelve columns from January to December. Beginning in the 16th century, European countries began officially making January 1 the start of the New Year once again—sometimes called Circumcision Style because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, being the seventh day after December 25.

Historical names for January include its original Roman designation, Ianuarius, the Saxon term Wulf-monath (meaning "wolf month") and Charlemagne's designation Wintarmanoth ("winter / cold month"). In Slovene, it is traditionally called január. The name, associated with millet bread and the act of asking for something, was first written in 1466 in the Škofja Loka manuscript. [2]

According to Theodor Mommsen, [3] 1 January became the first day of the year in 600 AUC of the Roman calendar (153 BC), due to disasters in the Lusitanian War. A Lusitanian chief called Punicus invaded the Roman territory, defeated two Roman governors, and killed their troops. The Romans resolved to send a consul to Hispania, and in order to accelerate the dispatch of aid, "they even made the new consuls enter into office two months and a half before the legal time" (March 15).

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Januarie
Alemannisch: Januar
አማርኛ: ጃንዩዌሪ
Ænglisc: Æfterra Gēola
Аҧсшәа: Ажьырныҳәа
العربية: يناير (شهر)
aragonés: Chinero
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܟܢܘܢ ܒ
armãneashti: Yinaru
arpetan: Janviér
অসমীয়া: জানুৱাৰী
asturianu: Xineru
Avañe'ẽ: Jasyteĩ
авар: Январ
Aymar aru: Chichu phaxsi
azərbaycanca: Yanvar
Bahasa Banjar: Januari
Bân-lâm-gú: 1 goe̍h
Basa Banyumasan: Januari
башҡортса: Ғинуар (Һыуығай)
беларуская: Студзень
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Студзень
भोजपुरी: जनवरी
Bikol Central: Enero
български: Януари
Boarisch: Jenna
bosanski: Januar
brezhoneg: Genver
català: Gener
Чӑвашла: Кăрлач уйăхĕ
Cebuano: Enero
čeština: Leden
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Enero
chiTumbuka: Janyuwale
Cymraeg: Ionawr
dansk: Januar
Deitsch: Yenner
Deutsch: Januar
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖެނުއަރީ
dolnoserbski: Wezymski
eesti: Jaanuar
Ελληνικά: Ιανουάριος
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Znêr
эрзянь: Якшамков
español: Enero
Esperanto: Januaro
estremeñu: Eneru
euskara: Urtarril
eʋegbe: Dzove
فارسی: ژانویه
Fiji Hindi: January
føroyskt: Januar
français: Janvier
Frysk: Jannewaris
furlan: Zenâr
Gaeilge: An tEanáir
Gagauz: Büük ay
Gàidhlig: Am Faoilleach
galego: Xaneiro
贛語: 一月
ગુજરાતી: જાન્યુઆરી
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: 1-ngie̍t
хальмг: Туула сар
한국어: 1월
Hawaiʻi: Ianuali
Հայերեն: Հունվար
हिन्दी: जनवरी
hornjoserbsce: Januar
hrvatski: Siječanj
Ido: Januaro
Igbo: Önwa mbu
Ilokano: Enero
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জানুয়ারী
Bahasa Indonesia: Januari
interlingua: Januario
Interlingue: Januar
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᔭᓐᓄᐊᓕ
Ирон: Январь
isiXhosa: Eyomqungu
íslenska: Janúar
italiano: Gennaio
עברית: ינואר
Basa Jawa: Januari
kalaallisut: Jannuaari
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಜನವರಿ
Kapampangan: Eneru
ქართული: იანვარი
kaszëbsczi: Stëcznik
қазақша: Қаңтар
kernowek: Mis Genver
Kinyarwanda: Mutarama
Kiswahili: Januari
Kreyòl ayisyen: Janvye
Kurdî: Rêbendan
Кыргызча: Январь
кырык мары: Январь
Ladino: Jenero
лакку: Январь
лезги: Январь
Latina: Ianuarius
latviešu: Janvāris
Lëtzebuergesch: Januar
lietuvių: Sausis
Ligure: Zennâ
Limburgs: Jannewarie
Livvinkarjala: Pakkaskuu
la .lojban.: pavma'i
Luganda: Gatonnya
lumbaart: Genar
magyar: Január
मैथिली: जनवरी
македонски: Јануари
Malagasy: Janoary
മലയാളം: ജനുവരി
Malti: Jannar
Māori: Kohi-tātea
მარგალური: ღურთუთა
مصرى: يناير
مازِرونی: ژانویه
Bahasa Melayu: Januari
Baso Minangkabau: Januari
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: 1 nguŏk
Mirandés: Janeiro
мокшень: Кельмеков
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဇန်နဝါရီ
Nāhuatl: Ce metztli
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Janueri
Nederlands: Januari
Nedersaksies: Jannewaori
नेपाली: जनवरी
नेपाल भाषा: ज्यानुवरी
日本語: 1月
Napulitano: Jennaro
нохчийн: Январь
Nordfriisk: Janewoore
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jaenyuweri
norsk bokmål: Januar
norsk nynorsk: Januar
Nouormand: Janvyi
Novial: Januare
occitan: Genièr
олык марий: Шорыкйол (тылзе)
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜାନୁଆରୀ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yanvar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਨਵਰੀ
پنجابی: جنوری
پښتو: جنوري
Patois: Janiweri
Перем Коми: Tӧвшӧр
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ខែមករា
Piemontèis: Gené (mèis)
Tok Pisin: Janueri
Plattdüütsch: Januar
polski: Styczeń
Ποντιακά: Καλαντάρτς
português: Janeiro
Qaraqalpaqsha: Yanvar
qırımtatarca: Yanvar
Ripoarisch: Jannowaa
română: Ianuarie
русиньскый: Януар
русский: Январь
саха тыла: Тохсунньу
sámegiella: Ođđajagimánnu
Gagana Samoa: Ianuari
संस्कृतम्: जनवरी
sardu: Bennàlzu
Scots: Januar
Sesotho sa Leboa: Pherekgong
shqip: Janari
sicilianu: Jinnaru
සිංහල: ජනවාරි
Simple English: January
سنڌي: جنوري
SiSwati: Bhimbídvwane
slovenčina: Január
slovenščina: Januar
ślůnski: Styczyń
Soomaaliga: Janaayo
کوردیی ناوەندی: کانوونی دووەم
српски / srpski: Јануар
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Januar
Basa Sunda: Januari
suomi: Tammikuu
svenska: Januari
Tagalog: Enero
தமிழ்: சனவரி
Taqbaylit: Yennayer
tarandíne: Scennàre
татарча/tatarça: Гыйнвар
తెలుగు: జనవరి
tetun: Janeiru
тоҷикӣ: Январ
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎤᏃᎸᏔᏅ
Türkçe: Ocak
Türkmençe: Ýanwar
удмурт: Толшор
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Januari
українська: Січень
اردو: جنوری
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: قەھرىتان
vèneto: Xenaro
vepsän kel’: Viluku
Tiếng Việt: Tháng một
Volapük: Yanul
West-Vlams: Januoari
Winaray: Enero
Wolof: Samwie
Xitsonga: Sunguti
ייִדיש: יאנואר
Yorùbá: Oṣù Kínní
粵語: 1月
Zazaki: Çele
žemaitėška: Sausis
中文: 1月