Jamaica

Jamaica
Motto: "Out of Many, One People"
Location of Jamaica
Location of Jamaica
Capital
and largest city
Kingston
17°59′N 76°48′W / 17°59′N 76°48′W / 17.983; -76.800
Official languagesEnglish
National languageJamaican Patois (de facto)
Ethnic groups (2011[1])
Religion
DemonymJamaican
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary representative democracy under constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Patrick Allen
Andrew Holness
Bryan Sykes
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
• Granted
6 August 1962
Area
• Total
10,991 km2 (4,244 sq mi) (160th)
• Water (%)
1.5
Population
• 2017 estimate
2,890,299[3]
• Density
266[4]/km2 (688.9/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$26.446 billion[5] (2017)
• Per capita
$9,297[5]
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$14.556 billion[5]
• Per capita
$5,117[5]
Gini (2004)45.5[6]
medium · [7]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.732[8]
high · 97th
CurrencyJamaican dollar (JMD)
Time zoneUTC-5
Driving sideleft
Calling code+1-876
+1-658 (Overlay of 876; active in November 2018)
ISO 3166 codeJM
Internet TLD.jm

Jamaica (ə/ (About this soundlisten)) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola (the island containing the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic).

Previously inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, and the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers. The island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England (later Great Britain) conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy highly dependent on African slaves. The British fully emancipated all slaves in 1838, and many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations. The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962.

With 2.9 million people,[9] Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas (after the United States and Canada), and the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans mainly have African ancestry, with significant European, Chinese, Indian, Lebanese, and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora around the world, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as the head of government and Prime Minister of Jamaica from March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.

Etymology

The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan,[10] meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs".[11]

Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown" ("Jamdung" in Jamaican Patois), or briefly "Ja", have derived from this.[12]

Other Languages
Acèh: Jamaika
Адыгэбзэ: Ямайкэ
Afrikaans: Jamaika
Alemannisch: Jamaika
አማርኛ: ጃማይካ
Ænglisc: Iamaica
العربية: جامايكا
aragonés: Chamaica
arpetan: J·amayica
asturianu: Xamaica
Avañe'ẽ: Hamáika
Aymar aru: Xamayka
azərbaycanca: Yamayka
تۆرکجه: جاماییکا
bamanankan: Jamaika
Bân-lâm-gú: Jamaica
башҡортса: Ямайка
беларуская: Ямайка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ямайка
भोजपुरी: जमैका
Bikol Central: Yamaika
български: Ямайка
Boarisch: Jamaika
བོད་ཡིག: ཇ་མའི་ཀ
bosanski: Jamajka
brezhoneg: Jamaika
буряад: Джамайка
català: Jamaica
Чӑвашла: Ямайка
Cebuano: Jamaica
čeština: Jamajka
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Jamaica
chiShona: Jamaica
Cymraeg: Jamaica
dansk: Jamaica
davvisámegiella: Jamaica
Deitsch: Tschameeki
Deutsch: Jamaika
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖެމެއިކާ
dolnoserbski: Jamaika
डोटेली: जमैका
eesti: Jamaica
Ελληνικά: Τζαμάικα
эрзянь: Ямайка
español: Jamaica
Esperanto: Jamajko
estremeñu: Jamaica
euskara: Jamaika
eʋegbe: Jamaica
فارسی: جامائیکا
Fiji Hindi: Jamaica
føroyskt: Jamaika
français: Jamaïque
Frysk: Jamaika
Gaeilge: Iamáice
Gagauz: Yamayka
Gàidhlig: Iaimeuca
galego: Xamaica
Gĩkũyũ: Jamaica
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: जमैका
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Jamaica
한국어: 자메이카
հայերեն: Ճամայկա
हिन्दी: जमैका
hornjoserbsce: Jamaika
hrvatski: Jamajka
Ido: Jamaika
Igbo: Jamaikạ
Ilokano: Hamaika
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জামাইকা
Bahasa Indonesia: Jamaika
interlingua: Jamaica
Interlingue: Jamaica
Ирон: Ямайкæ
íslenska: Jamaíka
italiano: Giamaica
עברית: ג'מייקה
Basa Jawa: Jamaika
Kabɩyɛ: Camayiki
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಜಮೈಕ
Kapampangan: Jamaica
ქართული: იამაიკა
қазақша: Ямайка
kernowek: Jamayka
Kinyarwanda: Jamayika
Kiswahili: Jamaika
коми: Ямайка
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jamayik
kurdî: Jamaîka
Кыргызча: Жамайка
кырык мары: Ямайка
Ladino: Jamaika
لۊری شومالی: جامائیکا
Latina: Iamaica
latviešu: Jamaika
Lëtzebuergesch: Jamaika
лезги: Ямайка
lietuvių: Jamaika
Ligure: Giamaica
Limburgs: Jamaica
lingála: Jamaike
Lingua Franca Nova: Jamaica
Livvinkarjala: Jamaika
la .lojban.: djamaikas
lumbaart: Giamaica
magyar: Jamaica
македонски: Јамајка
Malagasy: Jamaika
മലയാളം: ജമൈക്ക
Malti: Ġamajka
मराठी: जमैका
მარგალური: იამაიკა
مصرى: چامايكا
مازِرونی: جامائیکا
Bahasa Melayu: Jamaica
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Jamaica
монгол: Ямайк
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျမေကာနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Djamaika
Nederlands: Jamaica
Nedersaksies: Jamaika
नेपाल भाषा: जमैका
日本語: ジャマイカ
нохчийн: Ямайка
Nordfriisk: Jamaika
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jamaeka
norsk: Jamaica
norsk nynorsk: Jamaica
Novial: Jamaika
occitan: Jamaica
олык марий: Ямайка
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜାମାଇକା
Oromoo: Jamaayikaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yamayka
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਮੈਕਾ
पालि: जमैका
پنجابی: جمیکا
Papiamentu: Jamaica
پښتو: جمايکا
Patois: Jumieka
Piemontèis: Giamàica
Plattdüütsch: Jamaika
polski: Jamajka
Ποντιακά: Τζαμαίκαν
português: Jamaica
Qaraqalpaqsha: Yamaika
qırımtatarca: Camayka
română: Jamaica
Runa Simi: Shamayka
русиньскый: Ямайка
русский: Ямайка
саха тыла: Дьамайка
Gagana Samoa: Jamaica
संस्कृतम्: जमैका
sardu: Giamàica
Scots: Jamaica
shqip: Xhamajka
sicilianu: Giamaica
Simple English: Jamaica
سنڌي: جميڪا
SiSwati: IJamayikha
slovenčina: Jamajka
slovenščina: Jamajka
ślůnski: Jamajka
Soomaaliga: Jamayka
کوردی: جامایکا
Sranantongo: Jamaica
српски / srpski: Јамајка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jamajka
Basa Sunda: Jamaika
suomi: Jamaika
svenska: Jamaica
Tagalog: Hamayka
தமிழ்: ஜமேக்கா
татарча/tatarça: Ямайка
తెలుగు: జమైకా
tetun: Jamaika
тоҷикӣ: Ямайка
Türkçe: Jamaika
Türkmençe: Ýamaýka
українська: Ямайка
اردو: جمیکا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: يامايكا
Vahcuengh: Jamaica
vèneto: Giamaica
vepsän kel’: Jamaik
Tiếng Việt: Jamaica
Volapük: Camekeän
Võro: Jamaica
文言: 牙買加
Winaray: Jamaica
Wolof: Jamayka
吴语: 牙买加
ייִדיש: דזשאמייקע
Yorùbá: Jamáíkà
粵語: 牙買加
Zazaki: Camayka
Zeêuws: Jamaica
žemaitėška: Jamaika
中文: 牙买加