Jōmon period

Characters for Jōmon (meaning "cord marks" or "cord-patterned")

The Jōmon period (縄文時代, Jōmon jidai) is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between c. 14,000–300 BCE,[1][2] recently refined to about 1000 BCE,[1][3][4] during which Japan was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity. The name "cord-marked" was first applied by the American scholar Edward S. Morse, who discovered sherds of pottery in 1877 and subsequently translated it into Japanese as jōmon.[5] The pottery style characteristic of the first phases of Jōmon culture was decorated by impressing cords into the surface of wet clay and is generally accepted to be among the oldest in East Asia and the world.[6]

The Jōmon period was rich in tools and jewellery made from bone, stone, shell and antler; pottery figurines and vessels; and lacquerware.[7][8][9][10] It is often compared to pre-Columbian cultures of the North American Pacific Northwest and especially to the Valdivia culture in Ecuador because in these settings cultural complexity developed within a primarily hunting-gathering context with limited use of horticulture.[11][12][13][14]

Chronology

The very long, approximately 14,000 years, Jōmon period is conventionally divided into a number of phases: Incipient (16,500-10,000 years ago), Initial (10,000-7,000), Early (7,000-5,450), Middle (5,450-4,420), Late (4,420-3,220) and Final (3,220-2,350), with the phases getting progressively shorter.[2] The fact that this entire period is given the same name by archaeologists should not be taken to mean that there was not considerable regional and temporal diversity; the chronological distance between the earliest Jōmon pottery and that of the more well-known Middle Jōmon period is about twice as long as the span separating the building of the Great Pyramid of Giza from the 21st century.

Dating of the Jōmon sub-phases is based primarily upon ceramic typology, and to a lesser extent radiocarbon dating.

Other Languages
العربية: فترة جومون
বাংলা: জোমোন যুগ
Bân-lâm-gú: Zyômon sî-tāi
башҡортса: Дзёмон дәүере
беларуская: Дзёмон
brezhoneg: Marevezh Jōmon
čeština: Období Džómon
Deutsch: Jōmon-Zeit
español: Período Jōmon
Esperanto: Ĵomon-epoko
euskara: Jōmon Aroa
føroyskt: Jomontíðin
français: Période Jōmon
한국어: 조몬 시대
Bahasa Indonesia: Zaman Jomon
italiano: Periodo Jōmon
Basa Jawa: Jaman Jomon
Lingua Franca Nova: Periodo Jomon
magyar: Dzsómon-kor
Bahasa Melayu: Zaman Jōmon
Nederlands: Jomonperiode
日本語: 縄文時代
polski: Jōmon
português: Período Jomon
română: Perioada Jōmon
Simple English: Jōmon period
slovenčina: Obdobie Džómon
slovenščina: Obdobje Džomon
српски / srpski: Јомон период
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jomon
svenska: Jōmon
Türkçe: Jōmon dönemi
українська: Період Дзьомон
Tiếng Việt: Thời kỳ Jōmon
文言: 繩文時代
粵語: 繩紋時代
中文: 繩文時代