Ivory Coast

Republic of Côte d'Ivoire

République de Côte d'Ivoire (French)
Motto: "Union – Discipline – Travail" (French)
"Unity – Discipline – Work"
Anthem: L'Abidjanaise
Song of Abidjan
Côte d'Ivoire (orthographic projection).svg
Location of Ivory Coast
CapitalYamoussoukro (political)
Abidjan (economic)
6°51′N 5°18′W / 6°51′N 5°18′W / 6.850; -5.300
Largest cityAbidjan
Official languagesFrench
Vernacular
languages
Ethnic groups
(2018)
Demonym(s)
  • Ivorian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic under a parliamentary system
• President
Alassane Ouattara
Daniel Kablan Duncan
Amadou Gon Coulibaly
LegislatureParliament of Ivory Coast
Senate
National Assembly
Independence
• from France
7 August 1960
Area
• Total
322,463 km2 (124,504 sq mi) (68th)
• Water (%)
1.4[1]
Population
• 2018 estimate
23,740,424[2] (54th)
• 2015 census
24,905,843
• Density
63.9/km2 (165.5/sq mi) (139th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$106.412 billion[3]
• Per capita
$4,155[3]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$48.142 billion[3]
• Per capita
$1,879[3]
Gini (2008)41.5[4]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.492[5]
low · 170th
CurrencyWest African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zoneUTC+0 (GMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+225
ISO 3166 codeCI
Internet TLD.ci
  1. Including approximately 130,000 Lebanese and 14,000 French people.

Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire,[a] is a country located in West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro, while its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan. It borders Guinea and Liberia to the west, Burkina Faso and Mali to the north, Ghana to the east, and the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) to the south.

Prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. The area became a protectorate of France in 1843 and was consolidated as a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. Relatively stable by regional standards, Ivory Coast established close political and economic ties with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close relations to the West, especially France. Ivory Coast experienced a coup d'état in 1999 and two religiously-grounded civil wars, first between 2002 and 2007[7] and again during 2010–2011. In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution.[8]

Ivory Coast is a republic with strong executive power vested in its President. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s, though it went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. In the 21st century, the Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant.[1]

The official language is French, with local indigenous languages also widely used, including Baoulé, Dioula, Dan, Anyin, and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. There are large populations of Muslims, Christians (primarily Roman Catholics) and various indigenous religions.

Names

Originally, Portuguese and French merchant-explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries divided the west coast of Africa, very roughly, into four "coasts" reflecting local economies. The coast that the French named the Côte d'Ivoire and the Portuguese named the Costa Do Marfim—both, literally, mean "Coast of Ivory"—lay between what was known as the Guiné de Cabo Verde, so-called "Upper Guinea" at Cap-Vert, and Lower Guinea.[9][10] There was also a Pepper Coast, also known as the "Grain Coast", a "Gold Coast", and a "Slave Coast". Like those, the name "Ivory Coast" reflected the major trade that occurred on that particular stretch of the coast: the export of ivory.[11][9][12][13][14]

Other names included the Côte de Dents,[b] literally "Coast of Teeth", again reflecting the trade in ivory;[16][17][11][10][14][18] the Côte de Quaqua, after the people whom the Dutch named the Quaqua (alternatively Kwa Kwa);[17][9][15] the Coast of the Five and Six Stripes, after a type of cotton fabric also traded there;[17] and the Côte du Vent,[c] the Windward Coast, after perennial local off-shore weather conditions.[11][9] One can find the name Cote de(s) Dents regularly used in older works.[17] It was used in Duckett's Dictionnaire (Duckett 1853) and by Nicolas Villault de Bellefond, for example, although Antoine François Prévost used Côte d'Ivoire.[18] In the 19th century, usage switched to Côte d'Ivoire.[17]

The coastline of the modern state is not quite coterminous with what the 15th- and 16th-century merchants knew as the "Teeth" or "Ivory" coast, which was considered to stretch from Cape Palmas to Cape Three Points and which is thus now divided between the modern states of Ghana and Ivory Coast (with a minute portion of Liberia).[16][12][18][15] It retained the name through French rule and independence in 1960.[19] The name had long since been translated literally into other languages,[d] which the post-independence government considered increasingly troublesome whenever its international dealings extended beyond the Francophone sphere. Therefore, in April 1986, the government declared that Côte d'Ivoire (or, more fully, République de Côte d'Ivoire[21]) would be its formal name for the purposes of diplomatic protocol, and since then officially refuses to recognize or accept any translation from French to another language in its international dealings.[20][22][23]

Despite the Ivorian government's request, the English translation "Ivory Coast" (often "the Ivory Coast") is still frequently used in English by various media outlets and publications.[e][f]

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Кот-д-Ивуар
Afrikaans: Ivoorkus
Alemannisch: Elfenbeinküste
አማርኛ: ኮት ዲቯር
Ænglisc: Elpendbānrima
العربية: ساحل العاج
aragonés: Costa de Vori
armãneashti: Côte d'Ivoire
asturianu: Costa de Marfil
Avañe'ẽ: Marfil Rembe'y
azərbaycanca: Kot-d'İvuar
bamanankan: Kɔnɔwari
Bahasa Banjar: Pantai Gading
Bân-lâm-gú: Côte d'Ivoire
башҡортса: Кот-д’Ивуар
беларуская: Кот-д’Івуар
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кот д’Івуар
भोजपुरी: आइवरी कोस्ट
български: Кот д'Ивоар
brezhoneg: Aod an Olifant
буряад: Кот д'Ивуар
català: Costa d'Ivori
Чӑвашла: Кот-д'Ивуар
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Costa de Marfil
chiShona: Côte d'Ivoire
davvisámegiella: Elefántačalánriddu
Deitsch: Ivory Coast
ދިވެހިބަސް: އައިވަރީ ކޯސްޓު
español: Costa de Marfil
Esperanto: Ebur-Bordo
estremeñu: Costa de Marfil
euskara: Boli Kosta
eʋegbe: Nyiɖu Ƒuta
فارسی: ساحل عاج
Fiji Hindi: Côte d'Ivoire
français: Côte d'Ivoire
Frysk: Ivoarkust
Fulfulde: Kodduwaar
Gàidhlig: Costa Ìbhri
Gĩkũyũ: Côte d'Ivoire
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Côte d'Ivoire
հայերեն: Կոտ դ'Իվուար
hornjoserbsce: Słonowinowy pobrjóh
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কটে ডি'আইভরি
Bahasa Indonesia: Pantai Gading
interlingua: Costa de Ebore
Interlingue: Costa de Ivor
isiZulu: Ugu Emhlophe
italiano: Costa d'Avorio
עברית: חוף השנהב
Basa Jawa: Pasisir Gadhing
Kapampangan: Côte d'Ivoire
ქართული: კოტ-დ’ივუარი
қазақша: Кот-д’Ивуар
kernowek: Côte d'Ivoire
Kinyarwanda: Kote Divuwari
Kiswahili: Cote d'Ivoire
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kòt divwa
Кыргызча: Кот-д'Ивуар
кырык мары: Кот-д’Ивуар
لۊری شومالی: بال دریا آج
latviešu: Kotdivuāra
Lëtzebuergesch: Elfebeeküst
Limburgs: Ivoorkös
lingála: Kotdivuar
Lingua Franca Nova: Costa de Ivor
Livvinkarjala: Kot-d’Ivuar
Luganda: Ivory Coast
lumbaart: Costa d'Avori
Malagasy: Côte d'Ivoire
მარგალური: კოტ-დ’ივუარი
مازِرونی: عاج ساحل
Bahasa Melayu: Ivory Coast
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Côte d'Ivoire
монгол: Кот-д'Ивуар
Dorerin Naoero: Aibori Kot
Nederlands: Ivoorkust
Nedersaksies: Ivoorkuste
नेपाल भाषा: आइभोरी कोस्ट
нохчийн: Кот-д’Ивуар
Nordfriisk: Elfenbianküst
Norfuk / Pitkern: Côte d'Ivoire
norsk nynorsk: Elfenbeinskysten
Nouormand: Côte d'Iviéthe
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kot-dʼIvuar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਦੰਦ ਖੰਡ ਤਟ
پنجابی: آئیوری کوسٹ
Papiamentu: Côte d'Ivoire
پښتو: عاج ساحل
Patois: Aivri Kuos
Piemontèis: Còsta d'Avòri
Plattdüütsch: Elfenbeenküst
português: Costa do Marfim
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kot-dİvuar
qırımtatarca: Filtiş Yalısı
rumantsch: Costa d'Ivur
Runa Simi: Marphil Chala
русиньскый: Кот-д'Івуар
русский: Кот-д’Ивуар
саха тыла: Кот д'Ивуар
Gagana Samoa: Côte d'Ivoire
Sängö: Kôdivüära
Seeltersk: Älfenbeenkuste
Sesotho sa Leboa: Côte d'Ivoire
sicilianu: Côte d'Ivoire
Simple English: Côte d'Ivoire
slovenčina: Pobrežie Slonoviny
slovenščina: Slonokoščena obala
Soomaaliga: Xeebta Foolmaroodi
کوردی: کۆتدیڤوار
српски / srpski: Обала Слоноваче
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Obala Slonovače
Basa Sunda: Basisir Gading
Taqbaylit: Tafsirt n Uẓer
татарча/tatarça: Кот-д'Ивуар
тоҷикӣ: Кот-д'Ивуар
Türkçe: Fildişi Sahili
Türkmençe: Kot-d’Iwuar
українська: Кот-д'Івуар
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پىل چىشى قىرغىغى
vepsän kel’: Kot d'Ivuar
Tiếng Việt: Bờ Biển Ngà
Volapük: Viorajolän
文言: 科特迪瓦
West-Vlams: Ivôorkust
Wolof: Kodiwaar
吴语: 科特迪瓦
Xitsonga: Côte d'Ivoire
Yorùbá: Côte d'Ivoire
粵語: 象牙海岸
žemaitėška: Dramblė Kaula Kronts
中文: 科特迪瓦