Italian language

  • italian
    italiano, lingua italiana
    pronunciation[itaˈljaːno]
    native toitaly, switzerland (ticino and southern canton of graubünden), san marino, vatican city, slovenian istria (slovenia), istria county (croatia)
    regionitaly, ticino and southern graubünden, slovenian littoral, western istria
    ethnicityitalians
    native speakers
    67 million native speakers in the european union (2020)[1][2]
    l2 speakers in the european union: 13.4 million
    c. 85 million total speakers
    language family
    indo-european
    • italic
      • romance
        • italo-western
          • italo-dalmatian
            • italian
    early forms
    old latin
    • classical latin
      • vulgar latin
        • tuscan
    writing system
    latin (italian alphabet)
    italian braille
    signed forms
    italiano segnato "(signed italian)"[3]
    italiano segnato esatto "(signed exact italian)"[4]
    official status
    official language in


    recognised minority
    language in
     croatia
     slovenia
    regulated byaccademia della crusca (de facto)
    language codes
    it
    ita
    iso 639-3ita
    ital1282[6]
    linguasphere51-aaa-q
    map italophone world.png
      main language
      former official language
      presence of italian-speaking communities
    this article contains ipa phonetic symbols. without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of unicode characters. for an introductory guide on ipa symbols, see help:ipa.

    italian (italiano [itaˈljaːno] (about this soundlisten) or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a romance language of the indo-european language family. italian descended from the vulgar latin of the roman empire and, together with sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the romance languages.[7] italian is an official language in italy, switzerland (where it is the main language of ticino and the graubünden valleys of calanca, mesolcina, bregaglia and val poschiavo[note 1]), san marino and vatican city. it has an official minority status in western istria (croatia and slovenia). it formerly had official status in albania, malta, monaco, montenegro (kotor) and greece (ionian islands and dodecanese), and is generally understood in corsica (due to its close relation with the tuscan-influenced local language) and savoie. it also used to be an official language in the former italian east africa and italian north africa, where it still plays a significant role in various sectors. italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the americas and australia.[8] italian is included under the languages covered by the european charter for regional or minority languages in bosnia and herzegovina and in romania, although italian is neither a co-official nor a protected language in these countries.[9][10] many speakers of italian are native bilinguals of both italian (either in its standard form or regional varieties) and other regional languages.[11]

    italian is a major european language, being one of the official languages of the organization for security and co-operation in europe and one of the working languages of the council of europe. it is the second most widely spoken native language in the european union with 67 million speakers (15% of the eu population), and it is spoken as a second language by 13.4 million eu citizens (3%).[1][2] including italian speakers in non-eu european countries (such as switzerland, albania and the united kingdom) and on other continents, the total number of speakers is approximately 85 million.[12] italian is the main working language of the holy see, serving as the lingua franca (common language) in the roman catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the sovereign military order of malta. italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical terminology and opera. its influence is also widespread in the arts and in the luxury goods market.

    italian was adopted by the state after the unification of italy, having previously been a literary language based on tuscan as spoken mostly by the upper class of florentine society.[13] its development was also influenced by other italian languages and to some minor extent, by the germanic languages of the post-roman invaders. the incorporation into italian of learned words from its own ancestor language, latin, is another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language, scientific terminology and the liturgical language of the church. throughout the middle ages and into the early modern period, most literate italians were also literate in latin; and thus they easily adopted latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in italian. its vowels are the second-closest to latin after sardinian.[14][15] as in most romance languages, stress is distinctive and, unlike most other romance languages, italian retains latin's contrast between short and long consonants.[16] almost all native italian words and syllables finish with pure vowels, a factor that makes italian words extremely easy to use in rhyming. italian has a 7 vowel sound system ('e' and 'o' have mid-low and mid-high sounds); classical latin had 10, 5 with short and 5 with long sounds.

  • history
  • classification
  • geographic distribution
  • languages and dialects
  • phonology
  • writing system
  • grammar
  • words
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Italian
italiano, lingua italiana
Pronunciation[itaˈljaːno]
Native toItaly, Switzerland (Ticino and southern Canton of Graubünden), San Marino, Vatican City, Slovenian Istria (Slovenia), Istria County (Croatia)
RegionItaly, Ticino and southern Graubünden, Slovenian Littoral, western Istria
EthnicityItalians
Native speakers
67 million native speakers in the European Union (2020)[1][2]
L2 speakers in the European Union: 13.4 million
c. 85 million total speakers
Early forms
Latin (Italian alphabet)
Italian Braille
Italiano segnato "(Signed Italian)"[3]
italiano segnato esatto "(Signed Exact Italian)"[4]
Official status
Official language in


Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byAccademia della Crusca (de facto)
Language codes
it
ita
ISO 639-3ita
ital1282[6]
Linguasphere51-AAA-q
Map Italophone World.png
  Main language
  Former official language
  Presence of Italian-speaking communities
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Italian (italiano [itaˈljaːno] (About this soundlisten) or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire and, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland (where it is the main language of Ticino and the Graubünden valleys of Calanca, Mesolcina, Bregaglia and val Poschiavo[note 1]), San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria (Croatia and Slovenia). It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece (Ionian Islands and Dodecanese), and is generally understood in Corsica (due to its close relation with the Tuscan-influenced local language) and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it still plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia.[8] Italian is included under the languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Romania, although Italian is neither a co-official nor a protected language in these countries.[9][10] Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian (either in its standard form or regional varieties) and other regional languages.[11]

Italian is a major European language, being one of the official languages of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and one of the working languages of the Council of Europe. It is the second most widely spoken native language in the European Union with 67 million speakers (15% of the EU population), and it is spoken as a second language by 13.4 million EU citizens (3%).[1][2] Including Italian speakers in non-EU European countries (such as Switzerland, Albania and the United Kingdom) and on other continents, the total number of speakers is approximately 85 million.[12] Italian is the main working language of the Holy See, serving as the lingua franca (common language) in the Roman Catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical terminology and opera. Its influence is also widespread in the arts and in the luxury goods market.

Italian was adopted by the state after the Unification of Italy, having previously been a literary language based on Tuscan as spoken mostly by the upper class of Florentine society.[13] Its development was also influenced by other Italian languages and to some minor extent, by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders. The incorporation into Italian of learned words from its own ancestor language, Latin, is another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language, scientific terminology and the liturgical language of the Church. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Italians were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in Italian. Its vowels are the second-closest to Latin after Sardinian.[14][15] As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive and, unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants.[16] Almost all native Italian words and syllables finish with pure vowels, a factor that makes Italian words extremely easy to use in rhyming. Italian has a 7 vowel sound system ('e' and 'o' have mid-low and mid-high sounds); Classical Latin had 10, 5 with short and 5 with long sounds.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Италэбзэ
Afrikaans: Italiaans
አማርኛ: ጣልያንኛ
Ænglisc: Italisc sprǣc
aragonés: Idioma italián
Արեւմտահայերէն: Իտալերէն
armãneashti: Limba italichescã
asturianu: Idioma italianu
Avañe'ẽ: Itáliañe'ẽ
azərbaycanca: İtalyan dili
Bân-lâm-gú: Í-tāi-lī-gí
беларуская: Італьянская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Італьянская мова
Bikol Central: Italiano
български: Италиански език
Boarisch: Italienisch
brezhoneg: Italianeg
буряад: Итали хэлэн
català: Italià
Чӑвашла: Итал чĕлхи
Cebuano: Initalyano
čeština: Italština
Cymraeg: Eidaleg
davvisámegiella: Itáliagiella
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިޓަލީ
dolnoserbski: Italšćina
Ελληνικά: Ιταλική γλώσσα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Itagliàn
español: Idioma italiano
Esperanto: Itala lingvo
estremeñu: Luenga italiana
euskara: Italiera
Fiji Hindi: Italian bhasa
føroyskt: Italskt mál
français: Italien
Frysk: Italjaansk
Gaeilge: An Iodáilis
Gaelg: Iddaalish
Gàidhlig: Eadailtis
ГӀалгӀай: Италхой мотт
贛語: 意大利語
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yi-thai-li-ngî
한국어: 이탈리아어
Hausa: Italiyanci
հայերեն: Իտալերեն
hornjoserbsce: Italšćina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইতালীয় ঠার
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Italia
interlingua: Lingua italian
isiZulu: IsiTaliya
íslenska: Ítalska
italiano: Lingua italiana
עברית: איטלקית
Kapampangan: Amanung Italyanu
ქართული: იტალიური ენა
kaszëbsczi: Italsczi jãzëk
қазақша: Италиян тілі
kernowek: Italek
Kiswahili: Kiitalia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lang italyen
kriyòl gwiyannen: Italyen
Кыргызча: Италян тили
لۊری شومالی: زڤون ایتالیایی
latviešu: Itāļu valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Italieenesch
лезги: Итал чIал
lietuvių: Italų kalba
Limburgs: Italiaans
Lingua Franca Nova: Italian (lingua)
lumbaart: Lengua italiana
magyar: Olasz nyelv
македонски: Италијански јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny italiana
მარგალური: იტალიური ნინა
مازِرونی: ایتالیایی
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Itali
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: É-dâi-lé-ngṳ̄
монгол: Итали хэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အီတလီဘာသာစကား
Nāhuatl: Italiatlahtolli
Nederlands: Italiaans
Nedersaksies: Italiaons
नेपाल भाषा: इटालियानो
日本語: イタリア語
Napulitano: Lengua taliana
Nordfriisk: Itajeensk
Norfuk / Pitkern: Italiian
norsk: Italiensk
norsk nynorsk: Italiensk
Novial: Italum
occitan: Italian
олык марий: Итальян йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Italyan tili
پنجابی: اطالوی بولی
Papiamentu: Italiano
Patois: Italian
Перем Коми: Итальян кыв
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាអ៊ីតាលី
Piemontèis: Lenga italian-a
Tok Pisin: Tok Itali
Plattdüütsch: Italieensche Spraak
português: Língua italiana
Qaraqalpaqsha: İtalyan tili
qırımtatarca: İtalyan tili
reo tahiti: Reo ’Itāria
română: Limba italiană
rumantsch: Lingua taliana
Runa Simi: Italya simi
русиньскый: Таліянськый язык
саха тыла: Италия тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'aitaliani
संस्कृतम्: इतालवी भाषा
Sesotho sa Leboa: Setaliana
sicilianu: Lingua taliana
Simple English: Italian language
slovenčina: Taliančina
slovenščina: Italijanščina
ślůnski: Italsko godka
Soomaaliga: Af-Taliyaani
српски / srpski: Италијански језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Italijanski jezik
svenska: Italienska
татарча/tatarça: Итальян теле
Türkçe: İtalyanca
Twi: Italian
удмурт: Итальян кыл
українська: Італійська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىتاليان تىلى
vepsän kel’: Italijan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Ý
Volapük: Litaliyänapük
文言: 義大利語
West-Vlams: Italioans
Winaray: Initalyano
吴语: 意大利语
ייִדיש: איטאליעניש
Yorùbá: Èdè Ítálì
粵語: 意大利文
Zazaki: İtalyanki
žemaitėška: Italu kalba
中文: 意大利语