Italian Wars

Italian Wars
Sebastiano Ricci 035.jpg
The Truce of Nice signed in 1538 between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor with the mediation of Pope Paul III.
Date1494–1498; 1499–1504; 1508–1516; 1521–1530; 1536–1538; 1542–1546; 1551–1559
Location
primarily the Italian Peninsula
Belligerents
Commanders and leaders
Part of a series on the
Italy
Old map of Italian peninsula

Timeline

Flag of Italy.svg Italy portal

The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Peninsula was economically advanced, but politically divided between several small Italian states, used as pawns by European great powers. Italy and its riches therefore became the main battleground for supremacy in Europe, essentially between Valois France and Habsburg Spain and Austria. Other states, such as the Ottoman Empire and England, also played a part in the conflict.

The wars followed the end of the 40-years long Peace of Lodi agreed in 1454 with the formation of an Italic League between the major Italian states. The collapse of the alliance in the 1490s left Italy open to the ambitions of Charles VIII of France, who invaded the Kingdom of Naples in 1494 on the ground of a dynastic claim. The French were however forced to leave Naples after the Republic of Venice formed an alliance with Austria and Spain. In 1499, Louis XII of France initiated a second campaign against Naples by first taking control of the Duchy of Milan thanks to Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI and condottiero for Louis XII, marking an open alliance between the Papacy and France. The second war ended in 1503, when the King of Spain Ferdinand of Aragon (already ruler of Sicily and Sardinia) captured the Kingdom of Naples from Louis XII.

The new Pope, Julius II (1503-1513), reversed the policies of the Borgias and exiled Cesare. With France taking over almost all of Nothern Italy after defeating Venice at the Battle of Agnadello and Ferdinand of Aragon coming to southern Italy to be crowned King of the Two Sicilies, Julius II planned to "free Italy from the barbarians" and orchestrated the recapture of the peninsula. After Spain recognized the Two Sicilies as a papal fief, Julius II personally led his armed forces at the Battle of Mirandola and subsequently forced the French of Louis XII out of Italy in alliance with Switzerland and the HRE. The sudden death of Julius II led to the restoration of the status quo ante bellum in 1516: the treaties of Brussels and Noyon, arranged by Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Leo X, recognized French control in the north (excluding Venice) and Spanish control in the south.

War resumed in 1521 as Pope Leo X and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (simultaneously ruler of Austria, the Spanish kingdoms, and the Low Countries) expelled French forces from Milan. Francis I of France reacted by descending in Italy and fighting Imperial forces at the Battle of Pavia (1525), where he was captured and forced to give French territory to the Habsburg Netherlands of Charles V. Following his liberation, Francis I initiated a new war in Italy during which mutinous Germanic troops of lutheran faith sacked Rome (1527) and expelled the Medici from Florence. After ordering the retreat of Imperial troops from the Papal States, Charles V restored the occupied French territory to Francis I on the condition that France abandoned northern Italy ("Peace of the Ladies"). At the Congress of Bologna in 1530, Charles V received the Imperial title of King of Italy by Pope Clement VII. In exchange, the Pope obtained the restoration of the Medici family as the ruling dynasty of Florence.

Following catholic victories in Vienna and Tunis against the Ottomans, a new congress (1536) was held in Rome between Charles V and Pope Paul III to discuss the hypothesis of an ecumenical council to deal with protestantism. Despite fears of conciliarism within the curia, Pope Paul III ultimately saw a council as an opportunity to end the catholic Imperial-French wars in Italy by uniting the anti-calvinist French royalty with the Habsburgs against a common enemy. Indeed, the conflict had resumed at the Lombard-Piedmontese border with the French occupation of the Savoyard state soon after Charles V took the vacant Duchy of Milan. Therefore, Pope Paul III favored the "Truce of Nice" between Francis I and the Emperor (1538) as well as the subsequent "Peace of Crespy" (1544). The Council of Trent began in 1545, but Lutheran princes refused to recognize it with the result of entering a war with the Emperor (quickly lost) and allowing the Pope to dominate the council and initiate the counter-reformation. Around 1547, papal and imperial factions clashed for political supremacy and a series of conspiracies took place in several courts of Italy. The assassination of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma and son of the Pope, led to the suspension of the council until Pope Julius III reconvened it with the intention to promote a reconciliation of the defeated Lutherans with Charles V.

In 1551, Henri II of France invaded Tuscany and supported Siena in a war against Florence. In addition, France captured the Three Bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire with the support of Lutherans and formed an alliance with the Ottoman Empire (who had defeated Charles V in Algiers and Budapest in the 1540s) in order to invade Corsica. Charles V responded by forming an alliance with the Kingdom of England and by suspending the reconciliation with the German lutherans. Florence annexed Siena after victory over the French at the Battle of Scannagallo and the Genoese admiral Andrea Doria recaptured Corsica, but England lost the Pas-de-Calais to France.

Charles V, facing the prospect of a long-lasting alliance between all of his enemies, signed the Peace of Augsburg with the Protestant princes and abdicated by dividing the Habsburg Empire between the Austrian Habsburgs of his brother Ferdinand of Austria and the Spanish Habsburgs of his son Philip II of Spain. War continued between the Habsburgs and France, with the latter being defeated by a Spanish-Imperial army led by Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy (who regained its estates) at the Battle of St. Quentin (1557). Nevertheless, the French recovered and the conflict was prolonged until a compromise was reached at the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559. The end of the wars allowed Pope Pius IV and Carlo Borromeo to resume the Council of Trent and complete it in 1563, initiating the Catholic Reformation and Baroque period of Italy.

Prelude

Italy after the Peace of Lodi in 1454.

Following the Wars in Lombardy between Venice and Milan, which ended in 1454, Northern Italy had been largely at peace during the reigns of Cosimo de' Medici and Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence, with the notable exception of the crisis of 1479-1481 (brilliantly solved by Lorenzo and followed by the recapture of Otranto from the Ottomans) and the War of Ferrara in 1482–1484.

Charles VIII of France improved relations with other European rulers in the run up to the First Italian War by negotiating a series of treaties: in 1493, France negotiated the Treaty of Senlis with the Holy Roman Empire; on 19 January 1493, France and the Crown of Aragon signed the Treaty of Barcelona; and later in 1493, France and England signed the Treaty of Étaples.[1][2]


Other Languages
беларуская: Італьянскія войны
čeština: Italské války
français: Guerres d'Italie
Bahasa Indonesia: Peperangan Italia
Lëtzebuergesch: Italienesch Kricher
македонски: Италијански војни
português: Guerras Italianas
slovenščina: Italijanske vojne
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Italijanski ratovi
українська: Італійські війни