Islamic republic

Not to be confused with Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
For other uses of "Islamic republic", see Islamic republic (disambiguation).
Islamic republics shown in green.

An Islamic republic is the name given to several states in countries ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Mauritania and The Gambia. Pakistan first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. Afghanistan adopted it in 1992 (in 1996–2001 the Taliban was ruling as an Islamic emirate (monarchy)) upon Jamiat-e Islami seizing capital Kabul from the Communists. Despite the similar name the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws.

The term "Islamic republic" has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. To some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East and Africa who advocate it, an Islamic republic is a state under a particular Islamic form of government. They see it as a compromise between a purely Islamic caliphate, and secular nationalism and republicanism. In their conception of the Islamic republic, the penal code of the state is required to be compatible with some or all laws of Sharia, and the state may not be a monarchy as many Middle Eastern states are presently.[ citation needed]

List of Islamic republics

State Date of name adoption
  Islamic Republic of Afghanistan December 7, 2004
  Islamic Republic of the Gambia February 23, 2016 [1]
  Islamic Republic of Iran April 1, 1979 [2]
  Islamic Republic of Mauritania November 28, 1960
  Islamic Republic of Pakistan March 23, 1956