List of Islamic republics
Two months after the victory of the
Islamic Revolution in 1979, the new government held the
Iranian Islamic Republic referendum on the 10th and 11th of Farvadin (30th and 31 March) to change the
Pahlavi dynasty into an
Islamic Republic. On 12 Farvadin, it was announced that 98.2 percent of the Iranian voters wanted to establish the "Islamic Republic".
Before the Islamic Republic referendum, some political groups suggested various names for the ideology of the Iranian revolution, such as the Republic (without Islam) or the democratic republic. But
Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, asked people to vote for the name "Islamic Republic", not a word more and not a word less.
According to the
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Islamic Republic is a system based on beliefs in:
One God (as stated in the phrase "
There is no other god except God "), His exclusive sovereignty and right to legislate, and the necessity of submission to His commands;
divine revelation and its fundamental role in setting forth the laws;
the return to God in the Hereafter, and the constructive role of this belief in the course of man's ascent towards God;
the justice of God in creation and legislation;
leadership and perpetual guidance, and its fundamental role in ensuring the uninterrupted process of the revolution of Islam;
- the exalted dignity and value of man, and his freedom coupled with responsibility before God; in which equity, justice, political, economic, social, and cultural independence, and national solidarity are secured by recourse to:
leadership of the holy persons, possessing necessary qualifications, exercised on the basis of the
Quran and the
Sunnah, upon all of whom be peace;
- sciences and arts and the most advanced results of human experience, together with the effort to advance them further;
- negation of all forms of oppression, both the infliction of and the submission to it, and of dominance, both its imposition and its acceptance.
According to a commentary on Constitution, just as the establishment of Islamic Republic system is based on the beliefs of people namely governing of right,
Quran. However, its continuation lasted with the same principles and there is an important role for the beliefs of Iranian people. Also those beliefs are of complete and determinate roles in all affairs. Those beliefs considered as guidelines for governors and statesmen. There is an important role for beliefs such as the principle of unity of
God and believing in it.
 There are, in spite of that, other principles are to the submission in front of
Allah and his order. Therefore legislation is limited to god and laws so far as correspond to divine legislation are valid. Belief in
divine revelation and
prophecy also are essential to Islamic viewworld. We have two kinds of
justice. First kind is legislative(Tashri’i) and the other kind is creative or Takivini. Creative justice is based on the Justice and
equality. Legislative justice is respected to Making divine
law in Islamic society. Besides, the basis of
Shia school is in terms of
Imamate or leadership.
According to the principle of Imamate in Shia, it is indispensable to obey of the prophet of God and of those possessed of authority. Shia Ulama believe that the conception of term" those possessed of authority" denoted on Innocent Shia Imams. Certainly when Imam is absent, Valy faghih is in charge of leadership of society. In other word; religious leaders undertake the responsibility of Imamate. There is more emphasizing on the dignity (Karamat) and the high value of humans which is along with freedom and responsibility.The principle of Dignity is a necessary condition of the Islamic republic in terms of existence.There is many meaning for dignity. Sometimes it refers to generosity, nobleness and honor. However Islam considers with two sorts of dignity for human beings: essential or innate dignity and acquired dignity. According to innate dignity, Human being possessed of the right of living among other creatures. The principle also mentioned by the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. On the basis of Acquired dignity, human is able to pass the degrees of perfection with the aid of actuality of his potentialities and talents.
For the First time,
Rouhollah Khomeini referred to the terms of Islamic republic for Iranian people. He believes that Iranian people want an Islamic state which is a republic. Responding to Journalist's question on the ambiguity of the term Islamic republic,
Khomeini believes that republic has the same sense like other uses. Islamic republic has considered both with Islamic ideology and choice of people.
Afghanistan is an Islamic republic consisting of three branches, the executive, legislative, and judicial. The nation is led by President
Ashraf Ghani with
Abdul Rashid Dostum and
Sarwar Danish as vice presidents.
Abdullah Abdullah serves as the chief executive officer (CEO). The
National Assembly is the legislature, a
bicameral body having two chambers, the
House of the People and the
House of Elders. The
Supreme Court is led by
Chief Justice Said Yusuf Halem, the former Deputy Minister of Justice for Legal Affairs.
Pakistan was the first country to adopt the adjective "Islamic" to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in 1956. Despite this definition the country did not have a state religion until 1973, when a new constitution, more democratic and less secular, was adopted. Pakistan only uses the "Islamic" name on its passports, visas and coins. Although "Islamic Republic" is specifically mentioned in the Constitution of 1973, all government documents are prepared under the name of the
Government of Pakistan. The
Constitution of Pakistan, part IX, article 227 says "All existing laws shall be brought in conformity with the Injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah, in this Part referred to as the Injunctions of Islam, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such Injunctions".
 In 1974, Pakistan declared
Ahmadis as being outside the pale of Islam through the 2nd Amendment.
 Since the 1980s under General Zia's dictatorship however Pakistan is said to have taken a definite theocratic colour.
Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the
Maghreb region of western
Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan was declared in 1933 as an independent Islamic republic, by
Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki and
Muhammad Amin Bughra. However, the
36th Division of the
National Revolutionary Army defeated their armies and destroyed the republic during the
Battles of Kashgar,
Yangi Hissar and
 The Chinese Muslim Generals
Ma Fuyuan and
Ma Zhancang declared the destruction of the rebel forces and the return of the area to the control of the
Republic of China in 1934, followed by the executions of the Turkic Muslim Emirs
Abdullah Bughra and
Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra. The Chinese Muslim General
Ma Zhongying then entered the
Id Kah Mosque in
Kashgar, and lectured the Turkic Muslims on being loyal to the
In December 2015, President
Yahya Jammeh declared
The Gambia to be an Islamic republic. Jammeh said that the move was designed to distance the West African state from its colonial past, and that no dress code would be imposed and citizens of other faiths would be allowed to practice freely.
 However, he later ordered all female government employees to wear headscarves
 before rescinding the decision shortly after. The announcement of an Islamic republic has been criticized as unconstitutional by at least one opposition group.
 After the removal of President Jammeh in 2017 the incoming President
Adama Barrow has said the Gambia will be a republic once again eliminating the Islamic republic.
Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria used an Islamic republic government system from 1996 to 2000.