For other uses, see Islam (disambiguation).

Islam ( m/; [note 1] Arabic: الإسلام‎‎, IPA:  [alʔisˈlaːm]) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God ( Allah) [1] and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] It is the world's second-largest religion [7] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world, [8] [9] [10] with over 1.7 billion followers [11] or 23% of the global population, [7] known as Muslims. [12] Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique; [13] and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad ( c. 570–8 June 632 CE). The cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. [14]

Muslims believe that Islam is the original, complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. [15] [16] [17] As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. [18] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment. [19] [20] Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches resurrection of the dead, a final tribulation and eternal division of the righteous and wicked. [21] Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is often known as fitna or malahim. The righteous are rewarded with pleasures of " Paradise", while the unrighteous are punished in " Hell". The Mahdi (prophesied redeemer) will be sent and with the help of Jesus, will battle the Antichrist. They will triumph, liberating Islam from cruelty, and this will be followed by a time of serenity with people living true to religious values. [22]

In 610 CE, Muhammad began receiving what Muslims consider to be divine revelations. [23] Muhammad's message won over a handful of followers and was met with increasing opposition from notables of Mecca. [24] In 618, after he lost protection with the death of his influential uncle Abu Talib, Muhammad took flight to the city of Yathrib ( Medina). With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community which eventually led to the First Fitna. The dispute intensified greatly after the Battle of Karbala, in which Hussein ibn Ali was killed by the ruling Umayyad Caliph Yazid I, and the outcry for revenge divided the early Islamic community. By the 8th century, the  Islamic empire extended from  Iberia in the west to the  Indus river in the east. The Delhi Sultanate took over northern parts of Indian subcontinent. Under the Ottoman Empire, Islam spread to Southeast Europe. [25] By the 19th century the British Empire had formally ended the Mughal Empire in India. [26] The Ottoman Empire disintegrated after World War I and the Caliphate was abolished in 1924. [27] [28]

Most Muslims are of one of two denominations: [29] [30] Sunni (75–90%) [31] or Shia (10–20%). [32] Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, the Sahel, [33] [34] [35] [36] Central Asia, Indonesia and some other parts of Asia. [37] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, [38] the largest Muslim-majority country, 31% in South Asia, [39] [40] the largest population of Muslims in the world, [41] 23% in the Middle East- North Africa ( MENA), [42] and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa. [43] Sizable Muslim communities are also found in Horn of Africa, Swahili coast, Europe, China, Russia, Mainland Southeast Asia, Philippines, Caucasus and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world.

Etymology and meaning

The Kaaba in Mecca is the direction of prayer and destination of pilgrimage for Muslims

Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission, safeness and peace. [44] In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". [45] [46] Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "one who submits" or "one who surrenders". The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." [47] Other verses connect Islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion." [48] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. [49] In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that also includes imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence). [50] [51]

Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Jesus Christ in Christianity. Some authors, however, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. [52]

Other Languages
Acèh: Éseulam
Afrikaans: Islam
Alemannisch: Islam
አማርኛ: እስልምና
Ænglisc: Alladōm
العربية: إسلام
aragonés: Islam
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܣܠܐܡ
arpetan: Islame
অসমীয়া: ইছলাম
asturianu: Islam
Avañe'ẽ: Islã
авар: Ислам
azərbaycanca: İslam
تۆرکجه: ایسلام
bamanankan: Silameya
বাংলা: ইসলাম
Bahasa Banjar: Islam
Bân-lâm-gú: I-su-lân-kàu
Basa Banyumasan: Islam
башҡортса: Ислам
беларуская: Іслам
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Іслам
Bikol Central: Islam
Bislama: Islam
български: Ислям
Boarisch: Islam
bosanski: Islam
brezhoneg: Islam
буряад: Лалын шажан
català: Islam
Чӑвашла: Ислам
Cebuano: Islam
čeština: Islám
Chi-Chewa: Islam
chiShona: Islam
corsu: Islamu
Cymraeg: Islam
dansk: Islam
Deitsch: Islaam
Deutsch: Islam
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިސްލާމް
dolnoserbski: Islam
eesti: Islam
Ελληνικά: Ισλάμ
español: Islam
Esperanto: Islamo
estremeñu: Islam
euskara: Islam
فارسی: اسلام
Fiji Hindi: Islam
føroyskt: Islam
français: Islam
Frysk: Islam
furlan: Islam
Gaeilge: An tIoslam
Gaelg: Yn Islam
Gagauz: İslam
Gàidhlig: Ioslam
galego: Islam
ગુજરાતી: ઇસ્લામ
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌹𐍃𐌻𐌰𐌼
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Islam
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yî-sṳ̂-làn-kau
хальмг: Лал шаҗн
한국어: 이슬람교
Hausa: Musulunci
Հայերեն: Իսլամ
हिन्दी: इस्लाम
hornjoserbsce: Islam
hrvatski: Islam
Ilokano: Islam
Bahasa Indonesia: Islam
interlingua: Islam
Interlingue: Islam
isiZulu: Islam
íslenska: Íslam
italiano: Islam
עברית: אסלאם
Basa Jawa: Islam
kalaallisut: Islam
къарачай-малкъар: Ислам
ქართული: ისლამი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: اِسلام
қазақша: Ислам
kernowek: Islam
Kiswahili: Uislamu
Kongo: Kisilamu
Kreyòl ayisyen: Islamis
Kurdî: Îslam
Кыргызча: Ислам
Ladino: Islam
лакку: Ислам
лезги: Ислам
لۊری شومالی: إسلام
latviešu: Islāms
Lëtzebuergesch: Islam
lietuvių: Islamas
Ligure: Islamiximo
Limburgs: Islam
lingála: Islamu
la .lojban.: musyjda
lumbaart: Islam
magyar: Iszlám
मैथिली: इस्लाम
македонски: Ислам
Malagasy: Silamo
മലയാളം: ഇസ്‌ലാം
Malti: Iżlam
მარგალური: ისლამი
مصرى: الاسلام
مازِرونی: ایسلام
Bahasa Melayu: Islam
Baso Minangkabau: Islam
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ĭ-sṳ̆-làng-gáu
Mirandés: Eislan
молдовеняскэ: Ислам
монгол: Ислам
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အစ္စလာမ်ဘာသာ
Nāhuatl: Islam
Nederlands: Islam
Nedersaksies: Islam
नेपाल भाषा: इस्लाम
日本語: イスラム教
Napulitano: Islam
нохчийн: Ислам
Nordfriisk: Islam
Norfuk / Pitkern: Islem
norsk bokmål: Islam
norsk nynorsk: Islam
Nouormand: Islam
Novial: Islam
occitan: Islam
Oromoo: Islaamaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Islom
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਸਲਾਮ
پنجابی: اسلام
Papiamentu: Islam
پښتو: اسلام
Patois: Izlam
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សាសនាឥស្លាម
Piemontèis: Islam
Tok Pisin: Islam
Plattdüütsch: Islam
polski: Islam
português: Islão
Qaraqalpaqsha: İslam dini
qırımtatarca: İslâm
română: Islam
rumantsch: Islam
Runa Simi: Islam
русиньскый: Іслам
русский: Ислам
саха тыла: Ислаам
sámegiella: Isláma
संस्कृतम्: इस्लाम्-मतम्
sardu: Islam
Scots: Islam
shqip: Islami
sicilianu: Islam
සිංහල: ඉස්ලාම්
Simple English: Islam
سنڌي: اسلام
slovenčina: Islam
slovenščina: Islam
ślůnski: Islam
Soomaaliga: Islaam
کوردیی ناوەندی: ئیسلام
српски / srpski: Ислам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Islam
Basa Sunda: Islam
suomi: Islam
svenska: Islam
Tagalog: Islam
தமிழ்: இசுலாம்
Taqbaylit: Islam
татарча/tatarça: Ислам
తెలుగు: ఇస్లాం మతం
тоҷикӣ: Ислом
Türkçe: İslam
Türkmençe: Yslam
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Islam
українська: Іслам
اردو: اسلام
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىسلام دىنى
Vahcuengh: Yizswhlanzgyau
vèneto: Islam
vepsän kel’: Islam
Tiếng Việt: Hồi giáo
walon: Islam
文言: 回教
West-Vlams: Islam
Winaray: Islam
Wolof: Lislaam
吴语: 回教
ייִדיש: איסלאם
Yorùbá: Ìmàle
粵語: 回敎
Zazaki: İslam
Zeêuws: Islam
žemaitėška: Ėslams
中文: 伊斯兰教