Irkutsk

Irkutsk
Иркутск (Russian)
-   City [1]  -
Irkutsk Collage.png
Clockwise, from the upper right corner: Clock Tower, Picture Gallery, Irkutsk panorama from the dam, Local Lore Museum, Khudozhestvenny Cinema, Kazan Church
Map of Russia - Irkutsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Irkutsk Oblast in Russia
Irkutsk is located in Irkutsk Oblast
Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Location of Irkutsk in Irkutsk Oblast
Coordinates: 52°17′N 104°17′E / 52°17′N 104°17′E / 52.283; 104.283
Coat of Arms of Irkutsk.svg
Flag of Irkutsk (Irkutsk oblast).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Anthem none[ citation needed]
City Day First Saturday of June[ citation needed]
Administrative status (as of December 2014)
Country Russia
Federal subject Irkutsk Oblast [2]
Administratively subordinated to City of Irkutsk [2] [1]
Administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, [2] Irkutsky District, [2] City of Irkutsk [2]
Municipal status (as of December 2004)
Urban okrug Irkutsk Urban Okrug [3]
Administrative center of Irkutsk Urban Okrug, [3] Irkutsky Municipal District [4]
Mayor [5] Dmitri Berdnikov [5]
Representative body Duma[ citation needed]
Statistics
Area 277 km2 (107 sq mi) [6]
Population ( 2010 Census) 587,891 inhabitants [7]
Rank in 2010 24th
Density 2,122/km2 (5,500/sq mi) [8]
Time zone IRKT ( UTC+08:00) [9]
Founded 1661 [10]
Postal code(s) [11] 664xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 3952 [12]
Website
Irkutsk on Wikimedia Commons

Irkutsk ( Russian: Иркутск, IPA:  [ɪrˈkutsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia. Population: 587,891 ( 2010 Census); [7] 593,604 ( 2002 Census); [13] 622,301 ( 1989 Census). [14]

History

Irkutsk Castle in 1735

In 1652, Ivan Pokhabov built a zimovyo (winter quarters) near the site of Irkutsk for gold trading and for the collection of fur taxes from the Buryats. In 1661, Yakov Pokhabov built an ostrog or small fort nearby. [10] The ostrog gained official town rights from the government in 1686. The first road connection between Moscow and Irkutsk, the Siberian Road, was built in 1760, and benefited the town economy. Many new products, often imported from China via Kyakhta, became widely available in Irkutsk for the first time, including gold, diamonds, fur, wood, silk, and tea. In 1821, as part of the Mikhail Speransky's reforms, Siberia was administratively divided at the Yenisei River and Irkutsk became the seat of the Governor-General of East Siberia.

Irkutsk Assembly of the Nobility in the early 1900s

In the early 19th century, many Russian artists, officers, and nobles were sent into exile in Siberia for their part in the Decembrist revolt against Tsar Nicholas I. Irkutsk became the major center of intellectual and social life for these exiles, and much of the city's cultural heritage comes from them; many of their wooden houses, adorned with ornate, hand-carved decorations, survive today, in stark contrast with the standard Soviet apartment blocks that surround them.

Epiphany Cathedral and central Irkutsk in 1865

By the end of the 19th century, there was one exiled man for every two locals. People of varying backgrounds, from members of the Decembrist uprising to Bolsheviks, had been in Irkutsk for many years and had greatly influenced the culture and development of the city. As a result, Irkutsk eventually became a prosperous cultural and educational center in Eastern Siberia.

In 1879, on July 4 and 6, the palace of the (then) Governor General, the principal administrative and municipal offices and many of the other public buildings were destroyed by fire, and the government archives, the library and the museum of the Siberian section of the Russian Geographical Society were completely ruined. Three-quarters of the city was destroyed, including approximately 4,000 houses. [15] However, the city quickly rebounded, with electricity arriving in 1896, the first theater being built in 1897 and a major train station opened in 1898. The first train arrived in Irkutsk on August 16 of that year. By 1900, the city had earned the nickname of "The Paris of Siberia."

Irkutsk in 1918

During the Russian Civil War, which broke out after the October Revolution, Irkutsk became the site of many furious, bloody clashes between the " Whites" and the " Reds". In 1920, Aleksandr Kolchak, the once-feared commander of the largest contingent of anti-Bolshevik forces, was executed in Irkutsk, which effectively destroyed the anti-Bolshevik resistance.

Irkutsk was the administrative center of the short-lived East Siberian Oblast, which existed from 1936 to 1937. The city subsequently became the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast after East Siberian Oblast was divided into Chita Oblast and Irkutsk Oblast.

During the communist years, the industrialization of Irkutsk and Siberia in general was heavily encouraged. The large Irkutsk Reservoir was built on the Angara River between 1950 and 1959 in order to facilitate industrial development.

Epiphany Cathedral (built in 1718–1746)

The Epiphany Cathedral, the governor's palace, a school of medicine, a museum, a military hospital and the crown factories are among the public institutions and buildings. The Aleksandr Kolchak monument, designed by Vyacheslav Klykov, was unveiled in 2004. On July 27, 2004, the Irkutsk Synagogue (1881) was gutted by a conflagration.

In December 2016, 74 people in Irkutsk died in a mass methanol poisoning. [16] [17]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Irkoetsk
العربية: إيركوتسك
azərbaycanca: İrkutsk
تۆرکجه: ایرکوتسک
башҡортса: Иркутск
беларуская: Іркуцк
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Іркуцк
български: Иркутск
bosanski: Irkutsk
brezhoneg: Irkoutsk
буряад: Эрхүү хото
català: Irkutsk
Чӑвашла: Иркутск
čeština: Irkutsk
chiTumbuka: Irkutsk
Cymraeg: Irkutsk
dansk: Irkutsk
Deutsch: Irkutsk
dolnoserbski: Irkutsk
eesti: Irkutsk
Ελληνικά: Ιρκούτσκ
español: Irkutsk
Esperanto: Irkutsk
euskara: Irkutsk
فارسی: ایرکوتسک
français: Irkoutsk
Frysk: Irkûtsk
Gaeilge: Irkutsk
한국어: 이르쿠츠크
हिन्दी: इरकुत्स्क
hornjoserbsce: Irkutsk
hrvatski: Irkutsk
Ido: Irkutsk
Bahasa Indonesia: Irkutsk
Ирон: Иркутск
italiano: Irkutsk
עברית: אירקוטסק
ქართული: ირკუტსკი
kaszëbsczi: Irkùck
Kiswahili: Irkutsk
коми: Иркутск
Кыргызча: Иркутск
Latina: Ircutia
latviešu: Irkutska
Lëtzebuergesch: Irkutsk
lietuvių: Irkutskas
magyar: Irkutszk
монгол: Эрхүү хот
Nederlands: Irkoetsk
нохчийн: Иркутск
norsk: Irkutsk
norsk nynorsk: Irkutsk
occitan: Irkotsk
олык марий: Иркутск
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Irkutsk
پنجابی: ارکٹسک
polski: Irkuck
português: Irkutsk
română: Irkutsk
русский: Иркутск
саха тыла: Иркутскай
Scots: Irkutsk
shqip: Irkuck
sicilianu: Irkutsk
Simple English: Irkutsk
slovenčina: Irkutsk
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Иркоутьскъ
српски / srpski: Иркутск
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Irkutsk
suomi: Irkutsk
svenska: Irkutsk
Tagalog: Irkutsk
татарча/tatarça: Өркет
удмурт: Иркутск
українська: Іркутськ
اردو: ایرکتسک
vepsän kel’: Irkutsk
Tiếng Việt: Irkutsk
Winaray: Irkutsk
Wolof: Irkutsk
ייִדיש: אירקוצק