Irish language

Irish
Gaeilge
Gaelic-font-Gaelach.svg
"Gaelach"[clarification needed] in traditional Gaelic type
Pronunciation[ˈɡeːlʲɟə]
Native toIreland
RegionIreland, mainly Gaeltacht regions
Native speakers
73,804 in Ireland (2016)[1]
4,166 in Northern Ireland[2]
L2 speakers: 1,761,420 in the Republic of Ireland (2016),[1] 104,943 in Northern Ireland (2011)[2]
Early forms
Standard forms
An Caighdeán Oifigiúil
Latin (Irish alphabet)
Irish Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Ireland (Statutory language of national identity (1937, Constitution, Article 8(1)). Not widely used as an L2 in all parts of the country. Encouraged by the government.)
 European Union
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byForas na Gaeilge
Language codes
ISO 639-1ga
ISO 639-2gle
ISO 639-3gle
Glottologiris1253[4]
Linguasphere50-AAA
Irish speakers in 2011.png
Proportion of respondents who said they could speak Irish in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland censuses of 2011.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also (incorrectly) referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language,[5] is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers.

Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people for most of their recorded history, and they brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic and Manx respectively. It has the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe.

Irish has constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland and is an officially recognised minority language in Northern Ireland. It is also among the official languages of the European Union. The public body Foras na Gaeilge is responsible for the promotion of the language throughout the island of Ireland.

Names

In An Caighdeán Oifigiúil (the official written standard) the name of the language is Gaeilge (Irish pronunciation: [ˈɡeːlʲɟə]). Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled Gaedhilge; originally this was the genitive of Gaedhealg, the form used in Classical Irish.[6] Older spellings of this include Gaoidhealg in Classical Irish [ˈɡeːʝəlˠɡ] and Goídelc [ˈɡoiðelˠɡ] in Old Irish. The modern spelling results from the deletion of the silent dh in the middle of Gaedhilge, whereas Goidelic, used to refer to the language family including Irish, is derived from the Old Irish term.

Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects (in addition to south Connacht Gaeilge above) include Gaedhilic/Gaeilic/Gaeilig ([ˈɡeːlʲɪc]) or Gaedhlag ([ˈɡeːl̪ˠəɡ]) in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing/Gaoluinn/Gaelainn ([ˈɡeːl̪ˠɪŋʲ/ˈɡeːl̪ˠɪnʲ])[7][8] in Munster Irish.

In Europe the language is usually referred to as Irish, with Gaelic or Irish Gaelic used in some instances elsewhere.[9] The term Irish Gaelic is often used when English speakers discuss the relationship between the three Goidelic languages (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx).

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Iers-Gaelies
Alemannisch: Irische Sprache
አማርኛ: አየርላንድኛ
Ænglisc: Īrisc sprǣc
العربية: لغة أيرلندية
aragonés: Idioma irlandés
asturianu: Idioma irlandés
azərbaycanca: İrland dili
Bân-lâm-gú: Ài-ní-lân-gí
беларуская: Ірландская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ірляндзкая мова
भोजपुरी: आयरिश भाषा
български: Ирландски език
Boarisch: Irische Sproch
bosanski: Irski jezik
brezhoneg: Iwerzhoneg
Чӑвашла: Айриш чĕлхи
čeština: Irština
Cymraeg: Gwyddeleg
davvisámegiella: Iirragiella
dolnoserbski: Iršćina
eesti: Iiri keel
Esperanto: Irlanda lingvo
Fiji Hindi: Irish language
føroyskt: Írskt mál
français: Irlandais
Frysk: Iersk
Gaeilge: An Ghaeilge
Gaelg: Yernish
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ireland-ngî
한국어: 아일랜드어
Հայերեն: Իռլանդերեն
हिन्दी: आयरिश भाषा
hornjoserbsce: Iršćina
hrvatski: Irski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Irlandia
interlingua: Lingua irlandese
íslenska: Írska
עברית: אירית
kernowek: Wordhonek
Кыргызча: Ирланд тили
latviešu: Īru valoda
lietuvių: Airių kalba
Limburgs: Iers
magyar: Ír nyelv
македонски: Ирски јазик
മലയാളം: ഐറിഷ് ഭാഷ
მარგალური: ირლანდიური ნინა
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Ireland
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ireland-ngṳ̄
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerin Airerand
Nederlands: Iers
Nedersaksies: Iers
Nordfriisk: Iirsk
norsk: Irsk
norsk nynorsk: Irsk
Nouormand: Irlandais
occitan: Irlandés
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Irland tili
Pangasinan: Salitan Irish
پنجابی: آئرش
Papiamentu: Iers
Перем Коми: Ир кыв
Piemontèis: Lenga irlandèisa
Tok Pisin: Tok Aialan
português: Língua irlandesa
Runa Simi: Ilanda simi
Scots: Erse leid
Seeltersk: Irisk
Simple English: Irish language
slovenčina: Írčina
slovenščina: Irska gelščina
ślůnski: Irlandzko godka
српски / srpski: Ирски језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Irski jezik
suomi: Iiri
svenska: Iriska
தமிழ்: ஐரிய மொழி
Taqbaylit: Tirlandit
татарча/tatarça: Ирланд теле
Türkçe: İrlandaca
удмурт: Ирланд кыл
українська: Ірландська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئرېلاندىيە تىلى
vepsän kel’: Irlandijan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Ireland
Võro: Iiri kiil
ייִדיש: איריש
Yorùbá: Èdè Ireland
Zazaki: İrlandki
中文: 愛爾蘭語
Lingua Franca Nova: Eres (lingua)