• Éire  (Irish)
  • Airlann  (Ulster Scots)
Satellite image of Ireland
Satellite image, October 2010
Map of Ireland in Europe.svg
Location of Ireland (dark green)

in Europe (green & dark grey)

LocationNorthwestern Europe
Coordinates53°25′N 8°0′W / 53°25′N 8°0′W / 53.417; -8.000
Patron saintsSaint Brigit
Saint Colmcille
Saint Patrick
  1. ^ Including surrounding islands.
  2. ^ Irish Standard Time in the Republic of Ireland, British Summer Time in Northern Ireland.

Ireland (d/ (About this soundlisten); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (About this soundlisten); Ulster-Scots: Airlann [ˈɑːrlən]) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth.[6]

Geopolitically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland.[5]

The geography of Ireland comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. Its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate which is free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%,[7] and most of it is non-native conifer plantations.[8][9] There are twenty-six extant land mammal species native to Ireland.[10] The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus very moderate,[11] and winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant.

The earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BCE (12,500 years ago).[12] Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE. The island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, and was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became increasingly sovereign over the following decades, and Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, and Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same.

Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language. The island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, rugby, horse racing, and golf.


The names Ireland and Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu. This in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu (compare Welsh Iwerddon), which is also the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning 'fat, prosperous'.[13][self-published source?]

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Ирландие
Afrikaans: Ierland
አማርኛ: አየርላንድ
Ænglisc: Īrland
aragonés: Isla d'Irlanda
asturianu: Islla d'Irlanda
azərbaycanca: İrlandiya (ada)
Bân-lâm-gú: Ài-ní-lân (tó)
башҡортса: Ирландия (утрау)
беларуская: Ірландыя (востраў)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ірляндыя (востраў)
Bikol Central: Irlandya
bosanski: Irska (ostrvo)
brezhoneg: Iwerzhon
čeština: Irsko (ostrov)
chiTumbuka: Ireland
Cymraeg: Iwerddon
dolnoserbski: Irska (kupa)
Ελληνικά: Ιρλανδία
español: Irlanda (isla)
Esperanto: Irlando (insulo)
euskara: Irlanda
فارسی: ایرلند
Fiji Hindi: Ireland
føroyskt: Írland (oyggj)
français: Irlande (île)
Gaeilge: Éire
Gaelg: Nerin
Gàidhlig: Èirinn
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌴𐌹𐍂𐌰𐌻𐌰𐌽𐌳
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: आयर्लंड
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ireland Tó
한국어: 아일랜드섬
हिन्दी: आयरलैण्ड
hornjoserbsce: Irska (kupa)
hrvatski: Irska (otok)
Ido: Irlando
Ilokano: Irlanda
Bahasa Indonesia: Pulau Irlandia
interlingua: Irlanda
íslenska: Írland
italiano: Irlanda (isola)
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಐರ್ಲೆಂಡ್
kernowek: Wordhen
Kongo: Irlande
Latina: Hibernia
latviešu: Īrija (sala)
Lëtzebuergesch: Irland (Insel)
lietuvių: Airijos sala
Lingua Franca Nova: Er
lumbaart: Irlanda (isola)
magyar: Ír-sziget
македонски: Ирска (остров)
മലയാളം: അയർലന്റ്
मराठी: आयर्लंड
مازِرونی: ایرلند
Bahasa Melayu: Ireland
Nederlands: Ierland (eiland)
Nedersaksies: Ierlaand (eilaand)
Nordfriisk: Irlun (eilun)
norsk nynorsk: Irland
Nouormand: Irlande
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Irlandiya oroli
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਆਇਰਲੈਂਡ
Pälzisch: Irland
پنجابی: آئرلینڈ
Piemontèis: Irlanda (ìsola)
Tok Pisin: Aialan
português: Irlanda (ilha)
romani čhib: Irland (dvip)
rumantsch: Irlanda
Runa Simi: Ilanda wat'a
Gagana Samoa: Aialani
संस्कृतम्: आयर्लैंड
Scots: Ireland
shqip: Irlanda
Simple English: Ireland
سنڌي: آئرلينڊ
slovenčina: Írsko (ostrov)
slovenščina: Irska (otok)
српски / srpski: Ирска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Irska (otok)
svenska: Irland (ö)
Taqbaylit: Irland
తెలుగు: ఐర్లాండ్
Türkçe: İrlanda (ada)
українська: Ірландія (острів)
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىرلاندىيە
Tiếng Việt: Đảo Ireland
West-Vlams: Ierland (eiland)
Winaray: Irlanda
吴语: 爱尔兰岛
粵語: 愛爾蘭島
中文: 爱尔兰岛