Iranian languages

Iranian
Iranic
EthnicityIranian peoples
Geographic
distribution
West Asia, Caucasus, Central Asia, and South Asia
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Proto-languageProto-Iranian
Subdivisions
ISO 639-2 / 5ira
Linguasphere58= (phylozone)
Glottologiran1269[1]

Countries and areas where an Iranian language has official status or is spoken by a majority

The Iranian or Iranic languages[2][3] are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family. The speakers of Iranian languages are known as Iranian peoples.

Historical Iranian languages are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BC), Middle Iranian (400 BC – 900 AD) and New Iranian (since 900 AD). Of the Old Iranian languages, the better understood and recorded ones are Old Persian (a language of Achaemenid Iran) and Avestan (the language of the Avesta). Middle Iranian languages included Middle Persian (a language of Sassanid Iran), Parthian and Bactrian.

As of 2008, there were an estimated 150–200 million native speakers of Iranian languages.[4] Ethnologue estimates that there are 86 Iranian languages,[5][6] the largest among them being Persian, Pashto, Balochi and the Kurdish dialect continuum.

Term

Iranian languages family tree

The term Iranian is applied to any language which descends from the ancestral Proto-Iranian language.[7]

This use of the term for the Iranian language family was introduced in 1836 by Christian Lassen.[8] Robert Needham Cust used the term Irano-Aryan in 1878,[9] and Orientalists such as George Abraham Grierson and Max Müller contrasted Irano-Aryan (Iranian) and Indo-Aryan (Indic). Some recent scholarship, primarily in German, has revived this convention.[10][11][12][13]

The Iranian languages are divided into the following branches:

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Irannese tale
العربية: لغات إيرانية
aragonés: Luengas iranias
azərbaycanca: İran dilləri
تۆرکجه: گیلک دیلی
башҡортса: Иран телдәре
беларуская: Іранскія мовы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Іранскія мовы
български: Ирански езици
bosanski: Iranski jezici
brezhoneg: Yezhoù iranek
dolnoserbski: Irańske rěcy
español: Lenguas iranias
Esperanto: Irana lingvaro
한국어: 이란어군
hornjoserbsce: Iranske rěče
hrvatski: Iranski jezici
Bahasa Indonesia: Rumpun bahasa Iran
interlingua: Linguas iranic
italiano: Lingue iraniche
Кыргызча: Иран тилдери
latviešu: Irāņu valodas
lietuvių: Iranėnų kalbos
македонски: Ирански јазици
მარგალური: ირანული ნინეფი
مازِرونی: ایرانی زوونون
Nederlands: Iraanse talen
日本語: イラン語群
Nordfriisk: Iraansk spriaken
norsk nynorsk: Iranske språk
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Eroniy tillar
Piemontèis: Lenghe iràniche
português: Línguas iranianas
română: Limbi iraniene
Runa Simi: Iranu rimaykuna
slovenčina: Iránske jazyky
slovenščina: Iranski jeziki
српски / srpski: Ирански језици
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Iranski jezici
татарча/tatarça: Иран телләре
Türkçe: İran dilleri
українська: Іранські мови
Tiếng Việt: Ngữ chi Iran
粵語: 伊朗語支
中文: 伊朗语支