Iran

Islamic Republic of Iran
جمهوری اسلامی ایران ( Persian)
Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
Flag of Iran
Emblem of Iran
Flag Emblem
Motto: 
استقلال، آزادی، جمهوری اسلامی
Esteqlāl, Āzādi, Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi
"Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic"
( de facto) [1]
Anthem: 
مهر خاوران
Mehr-e Xāvarān
  • "The Eastern Sun"
Location of Iran
Capital
and largest city
Tehran
35°41′N 51°25′E / 35°41′N 51°25′E / 35.683; 51.417
Official languages Persian
Recognized regional languages
Religion Official:
Islam ( Shia)
Other recognized religions:
Demonym Iranian, Persian
Government de jure:
Islamic Republic
de facto:
Theocratic- republican hybrid; unitary presidential republic subject to a Supreme Leader [3]
Ali Khamenei
•  President
Hassan Rouhani
Eshaq Jahangiri
Ali Larijani
Sadeq Larijani
Legislature Islamic Consultative Assembly
Unification
c. 678 BC
550 BC
247 BC
224 AD [4]
1501 [5]
1 April 1979
24 October 1979
28 July 1989
Area
• Total
1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi) ( 17th)
• Water (%)
0.7
Population
• 2016 estimate
82,800,000 [6] ( 18th)
• Density
48/km2 (124.3/sq mi) ( 162nd)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$1.551 trillion [7] ( 18th)
• Per capita
$19,050 [7]
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$438.3 billion [7] ( 27th)
• Per capita
$5,383 [7]
Gini (2013) 37.4 [8]
medium
HDI (2014) Increase 0.766 [9]
high ·  69th
Currency Rial ( ریال) ( IRR)
Time zone IRST ( UTC+3:30)
• Summer ( DST)
IRDT ( UTC+4:30)
Date format yyyy/mm/dd ( SH)
Drives on the right
Calling code +98
ISO 3166 code IR
Internet TLD

Iran ( n/ Listen, also n/; [10] [11] Persian: ایران‎‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] Listen), also known as Persia [12] ( ə/), [13] officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān Listen), [14] is a sovereign state in Western Asia. [15] [16] It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the de facto Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan; to the north by the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country. [17] [18] It is the only country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance. [19] Iran has diverse landscapes and geographical conditions. [20] Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.

Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, [21] [22] beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the 4th millennium BC. The area was first unified and dominated by the Iranian Medes in the 7th century BC. [23] Iran reached its greatest extent during the Achaemenid Empire (First Persian Empire) founded by Cyrus the Great in 6th century BC, the largest empire the world had yet seen, stretching from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley. [24] Persia fell to Alexander the Great in 4th century BC, but reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. Under the Sassanians, Persia became a leading world power for the next four centuries. [25] [26]

In 7th century AD, Arabs conquered Persia and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with the new religion of Islam. Iranians became major contributors to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists and thinkers. After two centuries, a period of various Iranian dynasties began, although these dynasties were later conquered by Turks and then the Mongols. An Iranian national identity was always reasserted however, developing a distinct cultural entity. The rise of the Safavids in 15th century led to the establishment of Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion, marking a turning point in Muslim history. [5] [27] In the 18th century, Iran arguably possessed briefly the most powerful military at the time under Nader Shah. [28] Conflicts with the Russian Empire in 19th century led to significant territorial losses. [29] [30] Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution, which established a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislative body, the Majles. Following a coup d'état instigated by the UK and the US in 1953, Iran gradually became closely aligned with the West and grew increasingly autocratic. [31] Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, [18] a political system which combines elements of a parliamentary democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a " Supreme Leadership". [32]

A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants of Iran are Shia Muslims and Persian is the official language. [32] The largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. [6]

Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. Iran is a major regional and middle power, [33] [34] and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the largest natural gas supply in the world and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves [35] [36] – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. Iran's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. [37]

Name

The term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a 3rd-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to Iranians. [38] The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic ēr- (Middle Persian) and ary- (Parthian), both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya- (meaning " Aryan", i.e. "of the Iranians"), [38] [39] argued to descend from Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "skillful assembler". [40] In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of Avesta, [41] [a] and remains also in other Iranian ethnic names such as Alans ( Ossetic: Ир – Ir) and Iron ( Ossetic: Ирон – Iron). [39]

Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis ( Greek: Περσίς), [42] meaning "land of the Persians". As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted, even long after the Persian rule in Greece. However, Persis ( Old Persian: Pārśa; Modern Persian: Pārse) was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the southern end of the Zagros Mountains, and is today defined as Fars Province.

In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, Iran. As the New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, Nowruz, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. [43] Today, both Persia and Iran are used in cultural contexts; although, Iran is the name used officially in political contexts. [44]

Historical and cultural usage of the word Iran is not restricted to the modern state proper. [45] [46] [47] " Greater Iran" (Irānzamīn or Irān e Bozorg) [48] refers to territories of the Iranian cultural and linguistic zones. In addition to modern Iran, it includes portions of the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Central Asia. [49]

The Persian pronunciation of Iran is [ʔiːˈɾɒːn]. Two common pronunciations of Iran in English are roughly “ih-RAHN” and “ih-RANN” which are listed in the Oxford English Dictionary as /ɪˈrɑːn/ and /ɪˈran/, [10] Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary as \i-ˈrän, -ˈran; ī-ˈran\, [11] and the Random House Dictionary as /i-ran', i-rän', ī-ran'/. The Cambridge Dictionary lists /ɪˈrɑːn/ as UK pronunciation and /ɪˈræn/ as US pronunciation. Other dictionary is the Collins Dictionary that lists the pronunciation as /ɪˈrɑːn/. The pronunciation guide from the Voice of America provides the pronunciation of Iran as /ih-RAHN/. [50] The pronunciation n/ or /eye-RANN/ is sometimes heard in U.S. media. According to an article in The Washington Post, [51] the correct pronunciation of Iran is /ee-RON/ while /EYE-ran/ is listed as the way it's NOT pronounced. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language in the dictionary's 2014 Usage Ballot addressed the topic of the pronunciations of Iran and Iraq. [52] According to this study, among three pronunciations for Iran in American English i.e. roughly “ih-RAHN,” “ih-RANN,” and “eye-RANN”, first two pronunciations were almost equally acceptable while “ih-RAHN” being the preferred pronunciation for most panelists participating in the ballot by more than four to one. With regard to the “eye-RANN” pronunciations, however, more than 70% of the Panelists deemed “eye-RANN” unacceptable. Among the reasons given by those Panelists who disapprove of “eye-RANN” were that it has “hawkish connotations” and sounds “angrier,” “xenophobic,” “ignorant,” and “not … cosmopolitan.”

Other Languages
Acèh: Iran
Адыгэбзэ: Къажэрей
адыгабзэ: Иран
Afrikaans: Iran
Akan: Iran
Alemannisch: Iran
አማርኛ: ፋርስ
Ænglisc: Persealand
العربية: إيران
aragonés: Irán
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܝܪܐܢ
armãneashti: Iran
arpetan: Éran
অসমীয়া: ইৰান
asturianu: Irán
Avañe'ẽ: Iran
azərbaycanca: İran
تۆرکجه: ایران
বাংলা: ইরান
Bân-lâm-gú: Iran
башҡортса: Иран
беларуская: Іран
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Іран
भोजपुरी: ईरान
Bikol Central: Iran
български: Иран
Boarisch: Iran
བོད་ཡིག: ཡི་ལང་།
bosanski: Iran
brezhoneg: Iran
буряад: Иран
català: Iran
Чӑвашла: Иран
Cebuano: Iran
čeština: Írán
chiShona: Iran
chiTumbuka: Iran
corsu: Iranu
Cymraeg: Iran
dansk: Iran
Deitsch: Iraen
Deutsch: Iran
ދިވެހިބަސް: އީރާން
dolnoserbski: Iran
ཇོང་ཁ: ཨི་རཱན་
eesti: Iraan
Ελληνικά: Ιράν
español: Irán
Esperanto: Irano
estremeñu: Irán
euskara: Iran
فارسی: ایران
Fiji Hindi: Iran
føroyskt: Iran
français: Iran
Frysk: Iran
Gaeilge: An Iaráin
Gaelg: Yn Eeraan
Gagauz: İran
Gàidhlig: Ioràn
galego: Irán
贛語: 伊朗
Gĩkũyũ: Iran
گیلکی: ايران
ગુજરાતી: ઈરાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ईराण
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Iran
한국어: 이란
Hausa: Iran
Hawaiʻi: ‘Ilana
Հայերեն: Իրան
हिन्दी: ईरान
hornjoserbsce: Iran
hrvatski: Iran
Ido: Iran
Ilokano: Iran
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইরান
Bahasa Indonesia: Iran
interlingua: Iran
Interlingue: Iran
Ирон: Иран
isiZulu: I-Irani
íslenska: Íran
italiano: Iran
עברית: איראן
Basa Jawa: Iran
kalaallisut: Iran
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಇರಾನ್
Kapampangan: Iran
ქართული: ირანი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: ایٖران
kaszëbsczi: Iran
қазақша: Иран
kernowek: Iran
Kinyarwanda: Irani
Kiswahili: Uajemi
коми: Иран
Kongo: Iran
Kreyòl ayisyen: Iran
Kurdî: Îran
Кыргызча: Иран
Ladino: Iran
лакку: Иран
лезги: Иран
لۊری شومالی: ایران
Latina: Irania
latviešu: Irāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Iran
lietuvių: Iranas
Ligure: Iran
Limburgs: Iran
lingála: Iran
Livvinkarjala: Iran
la .lojban.: iran
lumbaart: Iran
magyar: Irán
मैथिली: इरान
македонски: Иран
Malagasy: Iran
മലയാളം: ഇറാൻ
Malti: Iran
Māori: Īrāna
मराठी: इराण
მარგალური: ირანი
مصرى: ايران
مازِرونی: ایران
Bahasa Melayu: Iran
Baso Minangkabau: Iran
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Iran
мокшень: Иран
монгол: Иран улс
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အီရန်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Iran
Dorerin Naoero: Iran
Nederlands: Iran
Nedersaksies: Iran
नेपाली: इरान
नेपाल भाषा: इरान
日本語: イラン
Napulitano: Iran
нохчийн: Иран
Nordfriisk: Iraan
Norfuk / Pitkern: Eraan
norsk bokmål: Iran
norsk nynorsk: Iran
Novial: Iran
occitan: Iran
олык марий: Иран
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇରାନ
Oromoo: Iraan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Eron
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਈਰਾਨ
पालि: ईरान
پنجابی: ایران
Papiamentu: Iran
پښتو: ايران
Patois: Iran
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អ៊ីរ៉ង់
Picard: Iran
Piemontèis: Iran
Tok Pisin: Iran
Plattdüütsch: Iran
polski: Iran
português: Irão
Qaraqalpaqsha: İran
qırımtatarca: İran
română: Iran
rumantsch: Iran
Runa Simi: Iran
русиньскый: Іран
русский: Иран
саха тыла: Ираан
sámegiella: Iran
Gagana Samoa: Iran
संस्कृतम्: ईरान
sardu: Iran
Scots: Iran
Seeltersk: Iran
Sesotho sa Leboa: Iran
shqip: Irani
sicilianu: Iran
සිංහල: ඉරානය
Simple English: Iran
سنڌي: ایران
SiSwati: I-Irani
slovenčina: Irán
slovenščina: Iran
ślůnski: Iran
Soomaaliga: Iiraan
کوردیی ناوەندی: ئێران
српски / srpski: Иран
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Iran
Basa Sunda: Iran
suomi: Iran
svenska: Iran
Tagalog: Iran
தமிழ்: ஈரான்
Taqbaylit: Iṛan
tarandíne: Iran
татарча/tatarça: Иран
తెలుగు: ఇరాన్
tetun: Iraun
тоҷикӣ: Эрон
Türkçe: İran
Türkmençe: Eýran
Twi: Iran
тыва дыл: Ирaн
удмурт: Иран
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Iran
українська: Іран
اردو: ایران
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىران
Vahcuengh: Iran
vèneto: Iran
vepsän kel’: Iran
Tiếng Việt: Iran
Volapük: Lirän
Võro: Iraan
walon: Iran
文言: 伊朗
West-Vlams: Iran
Winaray: Iran
Wolof: Iraan
吴语: 伊朗
ייִדיש: איראן
Yorùbá: Ìránì
粵語: 伊朗
Zazaki: İran
Zeêuws: Iran
žemaitėška: Irans
中文: 伊朗
डोटेली: इरान