Intonation (linguistics)

  • global rise
    global fall
    ↗︎◌
    ↘︎◌
    ipa number510
    511
    encoding
    entity (decimal)↗​↘
    unicode (hex)u+2197 u+2198

    in linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words as sememes (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction. (the term tone is used by some british writers in their descriptions of intonation but to refer to the pitch movement found on the nucleus or tonic syllable in an intonation unit.)

    although intonation is primarily a matter of pitch variation, it is important to be aware that functions attributed to intonation such as the expression of attitudes and emotions, or highlighting aspects of grammatical structure, almost always involve concomitant variation in other prosodic features. david crystal for example says that "intonation is not a single system of contours and levels, but the product of the interaction of features from different prosodic systems – tone, pitch-range, loudness, rhythmicality and tempo in particular."[1]

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Global rise
Global fall
↗︎◌
↘︎◌
IPA Number510
511
Encoding
Entity (decimal)↗​↘
Unicode (hex)U+2197 U+2198

In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words as sememes (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction. (The term tone is used by some British writers in their descriptions of intonation but to refer to the pitch movement found on the nucleus or tonic syllable in an intonation unit.)

Although intonation is primarily a matter of pitch variation, it is important to be aware that functions attributed to intonation such as the expression of attitudes and emotions, or highlighting aspects of grammatical structure, almost always involve concomitant variation in other prosodic features. David Crystal for example says that "intonation is not a single system of contours and levels, but the product of the interaction of features from different prosodic systems – tone, pitch-range, loudness, rhythmicality and tempo in particular."[1]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: İntonasiya
български: Интонация
Ελληνικά: Επιτονισμός
español: Entonación
Esperanto: Intonacio
Gaeilge: Tuin chainte
galego: Entoación
한국어: 억양
Bahasa Indonesia: Intonasi
қазақша: Интонация
Кыргызча: Интонация
lietuvių: Intonacija
magyar: Hanglejtés
Nederlands: Intonatie (spraak)
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Intonatsiya
português: Entonação
română: Intonație
Simple English: Intonation (linguistics)
Sunda: Lentong
suomi: Intonaatio
中文: 語調