International Cricket Council

International Cricket Council
International Cricket Council (logo).svg
Official logo of the ICC
AbbreviationICC
Predecessor

Imperial Cricket Conference(1909-65)

International Cricket Conference (1965-89)
Formation15 June 1909; 109 years ago (1909-06-15)
TypeFederation of national associations
HeadquartersDubai, United Arab Emirates
Membership
103 members
Official languages
English
Shashank Manohar
CEO
David Richardson
Websitewww.icc-cricket.com

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the global governing body of Cricket. It was founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference in 1909 by representatives from Australia, England and South Africa. It was renamed as the International Cricket Conference in 1965, and took up its current name in 1989.

The ICC has 103 members: 12 Full Members that play Test matches and 91 Associate Members.[1] The ICC is responsible for the organisation and governance of cricket's major international tournaments, most notably the Cricket World Cup. It also appoints the umpires and referees that officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, One Day International and Twenty20 Internationals. It promulgates the ICC Code of Conduct, which sets professional standards of discipline for international cricket,[2] and also co-ordinates action against corruption and match-fixing through its Anti-Corruption and Security Unit (ACSU).

The ICC does not control bilateral fixtures between member countries (which include all Test matches), it does not govern domestic cricket in member countries, and it does not make the laws of the game, which remain under the control of the Marylebone Cricket Club.[3]

The Chairman heads the board of directors and on 26 June 2014, N.Srinivasan, the former president of BCCI, was announced as the first chairman of the council.[4] The role of ICC president has become a largely honorary position since the establishment of the chairman role and other changes were made to the ICC constitution in 2014. It has been claimed that the 2014 changes have handed control to the so-called 'Big Three' nations of England, India and Australia.[5] The last ICC president was Zaheer Abbas,[6] who was appointed in June 2015 following the resignation of Mustafa Kamal in April 2015. The post of ICC president was abolished in April 2016 and Shashank Manohar who replaced Mr. Srinivasan in October 2015 became the first independent chairman of the ICC since then[7]. The current CEO is David Richardson, who succeeded Haroon Lorgat.[8]

History

1909 - 1963 - Imperial Cricket Conference

On 30th November 1907, Abe Bailey, the President of South African Cricket Association, wrote a letter to the Marylebone Cricket Club's (MCC, England) secretary, F.E Lacey. Bailey suggested the formation of an 'Imperial Cricket Board'. In the letter, he suggested that the board would be responsible for formulation of rules and regulations which will govern the international matches between the three members; Australia, England and South Africa. Bailey, wanted to host a Triangular Test series between the participant countries in South Africa. Australia rejected the offer. However, Bailey did not lose hope. He saw an opportunity of getting the three members together during the Australia's tour of England in 1909. After continued lobbying and efforts, Bailey was successful. [9]

On 15th June 1909, representatives from England, Australia and South Africa met at Lord's and founded the Imperial Cricket Conference. A month later, a second meeting between the three members was held. The rules were agreed amongst the nations, and the first ever Tri -Test series was decided to be held in England in 1912.[9]

In 1926, West Indies, New Zealand and India were elected as Full Members, doubling the number of Test-playing nations to six. After the formation of Pakistan in 1947, it was given Test status in 1952, becoming the seventh Test-playing nation. In May 1961 South Africa left the Commonwealth and therefore lost membership.[9]

1964 - 1988 - International Cricket Conference

In 1964, the ICC agreed upon including the non - Test playing countries. The following year, the ICC changed it's name to the International Cricket Conference. Under the new type of membership, the Associate. USA, Ceylon and Fiji were admitted.[10]

In 1966, Denmark, Bermuda, Netherlands, and East Africa were admitted as Associate. South Africa had still not applied to rejoin the ICC.

In 1969, the basic rules of ICC were amended.

In 1971 meeting, the idea of organizing a World Cup was introduced. In 1973 meeting, it was decided that a World Cup will be played in 1975 in England. The six Test playing nations and East Africa and Sri Lanka were invited to take part.[10]

New members were added regularly during this period:

In 1974, Argentina, Israel and Singapore were admitted as Associate.

In 1976, West Africa was admitted as Associate.

In 1977, Bangladesh was admitted as Associate.

In 1978, Papua-New Guinea was admitted as Associate. South Africa applied to rejoin, however their application was rejected.

In 1981, Sri-Lanka was promoted to being a Full Member. They played their first Test in 1982.

In 1984, the third type of membership; Affiliate category of membership was added to the ICC. Italy was the first member, followed by Switzerland in 1985. In 1987, Bahamas and France were admitted, followed by Nepal in 1988.

1989 - present

In the July meeting of 1989, the ICC renamed itself to the International Cricket Council and the trend of the MCC President automatically becoming the Chairman of ICC was terminated.[11]

In 1990, UAE joined as an associate.

In 1991, for the first time in ICC history the meeting was held away from England - in Melbourne. South Africa was re-elected as a Full Member of the ICC in July, after the end of apartheid.

In 1992, Zimbabwe was admitted as the ninth Test-playing nation (Full Member). Namibia joined as Associate member. Austria, Belgium, Brunei and Spain joined as Affiliates.

In 1993, the Chief Executive of ICC was created with Sir David Richards of the Australian Cricket Board the first person appointed to the position. In July, Sir Clyde Walcott, from Barbados, was elected as the first non-British Chairman. The emergence of new technology saw the introduction of a third umpire who was equipped with video playback facilities.

By 1995, TV replays were made available for run outs and stumpings in Test matches with the third umpire required to signal out or not out with red and green lights respectively. The following year, the cameras were used to determine if the ball had crossed the boundary, and in 1997 decisions on the cleanness of catches could be referred to the third umpire. This year also saw the introduction of the Duckworth-Lewis method of adjusting targets in rain-affected ODI matches.

In 2000, Bangladesh received Test status (Full Member).

In 2005, ICC moved its new headquarters in Dubai.

In 2017, Afghanistan Cricket Board and Cricket Ireland were confirmed as Full Members of the International Cricket Council after a unanimous vote at the ICC Full Council meeting at The Oval.

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