International Baccalaureate

International Baccalaureate
International Baccalaureate Logo.svg
International Baccalaureate logo
Formation1968; 50 years ago (1968)
HeadquartersGeneva, Switzerland
Websitewww.ibo.org
Formerly called
International Baccalaureate Organization

The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is an international educational foundation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and founded in 1968.[1][2] It offers four educational programmes: the IB Diploma Programme and the IB Career-related Programme for students aged 16 to 19, the IB Middle Years Programme for students aged 11 to 16, and the IB Primary Years Programme for children aged 3 to 12.[3] To teach these programmes, schools must be authorized by the International Baccalaureate.

The organisation's name and logo were changed in 2007 to reflect a reorganisation. Consequently, "IB" may now refer to the organisation itself, any of the four programmes, or the diploma or certificates awarded at the end of a programme.[4]

History

Inception

When Marie-Thérèse Maurette wrote "Educational Techniques for Peace. Do They Exist?" in 1948,[5] she created the framework for what would eventually become the IB Diploma Programme (IBDP).[6] In the mid-1960s, a group of teachers from the International School of Geneva (Ecolint) created the International Schools Examinations Syndicate (ISES), which would later become the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) and then the International Baccalaureate (IB).[7]

First programme

The IB headquarters were officially established in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1968 for the development and maintenance of the IB Diploma Programme. The objective of this programme was to "provide an internationally acceptable university admissions qualification suitable for the growing mobile population of young people whose parents were part of the world of diplomacy, international and multi-national organizations" by offering standardized courses and assessments for students aged 16 to 19.[8][9]

International Baccalaureate North America (IBNA) was established in 1975[10] by Peter Nehr, International Baccalaureate Africa, Europe and Middle-East (IBAEM) in 1986,[11] and International Baccalaureate Asia Pacific (IBAP) during the same period.[12]

Other programmes

The IB Middle Years Programme (MYP) was first offered in 1994. Within five years, 51 countries had MYP schools.[13] A revised MYP programme was introduced in September 2014.[14]

The IB Primary Years Programme (PYP) was piloted in 1996 in 30 primary schools on different continents, and the first PYP school was authorised in 1997,[15] with 87 authorised schools in 43 countries within five years.[16]

The IB Career-related Programme (formerly IB Career-related Certificate[17]) was first offered in 2012.

Directors

Alec Peterson was IB's first director general (1968–1977), followed by Gérard Renaud (1977–1983), Roger Peel (1983–1998), Derek Blackman (1998–1999), George Walker (1999–2005), Jeffrey Beard (2006–2013) and Dr. Siva Kumari (appointed 2013, incumbent from 2014).[18]

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