Ingrid Bergman

Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman, Gaslight 1944.jpg
Bergman in 1944
Born(1915-08-29)29 August 1915
Stockholm, Sweden
Died29 August 1982(1982-08-29) (aged 67)
London, England
Years active1932–1982
  • Petter Lindström
    (m. 1937; div. 1950)
  • Roberto Rossellini
    (m. 1950; div. 1957)
  • Lars Schmidt
    (m. 1958; div. 1975)
Children4, including Pia Lindström and Isabella Rossellini

Ingrid Bergman[a] (29 August 1915 – 29 August 1982) was a Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films.[1] She won three Academy Awards, two Primetime Emmy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, a BAFTA Award, and a Tony Award. She is best remembered for her roles as Ilsa Lund in Casablanca (1942) and Alicia Huberman in Notorious (1946).

Bergman was born in Stockholm to a Swedish father and a German mother and started her career as an actress in Swedish and German films in the 1930s. Her introduction to American audiences came with her starring role in the English-language remake of Intermezzo (1939). At her insistence, producer David O. Selznick agreed not to sign her to a contract--for four films, rather than the then-standard seven-year period, also at her insistence--until after Intermezzo had been released. Selznick's financial problems meant that Bergman was often loaned to other studios. Apart from Casablanca, her performances from this period include Victor Fleming's remake of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1941), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943), Gaslight (1944) and The Bells of St. Mary's (1945). Her last films for Selznick were Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbound (1945) and Notorious (1946). Her final film for Hitchcock was Under Capricorn (1949).

After a decade in American films, she starred in Roberto Rossellini's Stromboli (1950), following the revelation that she was having an extramarital affair with the director. The affair and then marriage with Rossellini created a scandal in the U.S. that forced her to remain in Europe for several years, after which she made a successful return to working for a Hollywood studio in Anastasia (1956), for which she won her second Academy Award. Although she made many films for Hollywood studios in subsequent years, they were all made in Europe, and she did not film in Hollywood again until 1969.

According to the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, Bergman quickly became "the ideal of American womanhood" and a contender for Hollywood's greatest leading actress.[2] In the United States, she is considered to have brought a "Nordic freshness and vitality" to the screen, along with exceptional beauty and intelligence; David O. Selznick once called her "the most completely conscientious actress" he had ever worked with. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Bergman as the fourth-greatest female screen legend of classic American cinema.[3]

Early years

Bergman at around the age of 16. The self-portrait was taken with her deceased father's camera equipment.[4]

Bergman was born on 29 August 1915 in Stockholm, to a Swedish father, Justus Samuel Bergman (2 May 1871 – 29 July 1929),[5] and his German wife, Friedel Henrietta Augusta Louise (née Adler) Bergman (12 September 1884 – 19 January 1918), who was born in Kiel.[6][7] Her parents married in Hamburg in 1907.[8] She was named after Princess Ingrid of Sweden. She mainly grew up in Sweden, but spent the summers in Germany, and spoke fluent German.[9]

When she was two years old, her mother died. Her father, who was an artist and photographer, died when she was 13. In the years before he died, he wanted her to become an opera star, and had her take voice lessons for three years. But she always "knew from the beginning that she wanted to be an actress", sometimes wearing her mother's clothes and staging plays in her father's empty studio. Her father documented all her birthdays with a borrowed camera.[10]

Her first film, Munkbrogreven (1934), at age 19

After his death, she was sent to live with an aunt, who died of heart disease only six months later. She then moved in with her Aunt Hulda and Uncle Otto, who had five children. Another aunt she visited, Elsa Adler, whom Ingrid called "Mutti", reportedly told a family legend to the 11-year-old, according to Charlotte Chandler's biography of Ingrid Bergman, that her mother may have had "some Jewish blood".[6]:294 One of Bergman's biographers, Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm, however, believes the claim was likely an embellishment. After doing an in-depth genealogical investigation, Bergman's maternal cousin found no Jewish ancestry on Bergman's mother's side. Furthermore, an investigation of Bergman's ancestry in 1938 when she signed a contract with the German company Universum Film found only non-Jewish ancestors.[11]

Later, she received a scholarship to the state-sponsored Royal Dramatic Theatre School, where Greta Garbo had some years earlier earned a similar scholarship. After several months, she was given a part in a new play, Ett Brott (A Crime), written by Sigfrid Siwertz. Chandler notes that this was "totally against procedure" at the school, where girls were expected to complete three years of study before getting such acting roles.[6]:33

During her first summer break, she was also hired by a Swedish film studio, which led to her leaving the Royal Dramatic Theatre after just one year, to work in films full-time. Her first film role after leaving the Royal Dramatic Theatre was a small part in Munkbrogreven (1935), although she reportedly had previously been an extra in the 1932 film Landskamp). She went on to act in a dozen films in Sweden, including En kvinnas ansikte, which was later remade as A Woman's Face with Joan Crawford, and one film in Germany, Die vier Gesellen (The Four Companions) (1938).

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Ingrid Bergman
aragonés: Ingrid Bergman
asturianu: Ingrid Bergman
Aymar aru: Ingrid Bergman
azərbaycanca: İnqrid Berqman
Bân-lâm-gú: Ingrid Bergman
башҡортса: Ингрид Бергман
беларуская: Інгрыд Бергман
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Інгрыд Бэргман
български: Ингрид Бергман
bosanski: Ingrid Bergman
brezhoneg: Ingrid Bergman
español: Ingrid Bergman
Esperanto: Ingrid Bergman
français: Ingrid Bergman
Gàidhlig: Ingrid Bergman
hrvatski: Ingrid Bergman
Bahasa Indonesia: Ingrid Bergman
íslenska: Ingrid Bergman
italiano: Ingrid Bergman
Lëtzebuergesch: Ingrid Bergman
lietuvių: Ingrid Bergman
македонски: Ингрид Бергман
Malagasy: Ingrid Bergman
მარგალური: ინგრიდ ბერგმანი
Bahasa Melayu: Ingrid Bergman
Nederlands: Ingrid Bergman
Piemontèis: Ingrid Bergman
português: Ingrid Bergman
română: Ingrid Bergman
Runa Simi: Ingrid Bergman
sicilianu: Ingrid Bergman
Simple English: Ingrid Bergman
slovenčina: Ingrid Bergmanová
slovenščina: Ingrid Bergman
српски / srpski: Ингрид Бергман
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ingrid Bergman
Türkçe: Ingrid Bergman
українська: Інгрід Бергман
Tiếng Việt: Ingrid Bergman
Yorùbá: Ingrid Bergman