Inflammation

The cardinal signs of inflammation include: pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Some of these indicators can be seen here due to an allergic reaction.

Inflammation (from Latin: inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants,[1] and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and initiate tissue repair.

The five classical signs of inflammation are heat, pain, redness, swelling, and [1] Inflammation is a generic response, and therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, which is specific for each pathogen.[2] Too little inflammation could lead to progressive tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus (e.g. bacteria) and compromise the survival of the organism. In contrast, chronic inflammation may lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, periodontitis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer (e.g., gallbladder carcinoma). Inflammation is therefore normally closely regulated by the body.

Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes (especially granulocytes) from the blood into the injured tissues. A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue. Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process.

Inflammation is not a synonym for infection. Infection describes the interaction between the action of microbial invasion and the reaction of the body's inflammatory response — the two components are considered together when discussing an infection, and the word is used to imply a microbial invasive cause for the observed inflammatory reaction. Inflammation on the other hand describes purely the body's immunovascular response, whatever the cause may be. But because of how often the two are correlated, words ending in the suffix -itis (which refers to inflammation) are sometimes informally described as referring to infection. For example, the word urethritis strictly means only "urethral inflammation", but clinical health care providers usually discuss urethritis as a urethral infection because urethral microbial invasion is the most common cause of urethritis.

It is useful to differentiate inflammation and infection as there are many pathological situations where inflammation is not driven by microbial invasion – for example, atherosclerosis, type III hypersensitivity, trauma, and ischemia. There are also pathological situations where microbial invasion does not result in classic inflammatory response—for example, parasitosis, eosinophilia.

Causes

Physical:

Biological:

Chemical:[3]

Psychological:

Other Languages
العربية: التهاب
অসমীয়া: প্ৰদাহ
asturianu: Inflamación
Avañe'ẽ: Ruru
azərbaycanca: İltihab
تۆرکجه: ایلتیهاب
беларуская: Запаленне
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Запаленьне
български: Възпаление
bosanski: Upala
català: Inflamació
čeština: Zánět
Cymraeg: Llid
Deutsch: Entzündung
eesti: Põletik
Ελληνικά: Φλεγμονή
español: Inflamación
Esperanto: Inflamo
euskara: Hantura
فارسی: التهاب
français: Inflammation
Gaeilge: Athlasadh
galego: Inflamación
한국어: 염증
հայերեն: Բորբոքում
हिन्दी: शोथ
hrvatski: Upala
Ido: Inflamo
Bahasa Indonesia: Radang
íslenska: Bólga
italiano: Infiammazione
עברית: דלקת
қазақша: Ісіну
Кыргызча: Сезгенүү
Latina: Inflammatio
latviešu: Iekaisums
lietuvių: Uždegimas
Limburgs: Óntstaeking
magyar: Gyulladás
മലയാളം: കോശജ്വലനം
مصرى: التهاب
Bahasa Melayu: Keradangan
монгол: Үрэвсэл
日本語: 炎症
norsk: Betennelse
norsk nynorsk: Betennelse
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yalligʻlanish
پښتو: تسپود
Patois: Inflamieshan
Plattdüütsch: Sweer (Medizin)
polski: Zapalenie
português: Inflamação
română: Inflamație
русский: Воспаление
Simple English: Inflammation
slovenčina: Zápal
slovenščina: Vnetje
کوردی: ھەوکردن
српски / srpski: Запаљење
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Upala
suomi: Tulehdus
svenska: Inflammation
தமிழ்: அழற்சி
тоҷикӣ: Газак
Türkçe: Enflamasyon
тыва дыл: Дегдириишкин
українська: Запалення
اردو: التہاب
Tiếng Việt: Viêm
ייִדיש: אנצינדונג
粵語: 發炎
中文: 炎症