Republic of Indonesia

Republik Indonesia  (Indonesian)
Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Kawi)
(English: "Unity in Diversity")
National ideology: Pancasila[1][2]
Anthem: "Indonesia Raya"
(English: "Great Indonesia")
Indonesia (orthographic projection).svg
and largest city
6°10′30″S 106°49′40″E / 6°10′30″S 106°49′40″E / -6.17500; 106.82778
Official language
and national language
Regional languages
Over 700 languages[3]
Ethnic groups
Over 300 ethnic groups[4]
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Joko Widodo
Jusuf Kalla
Puan Maharani
Muhammad Hatta Ali
LegislaturePeople's Consultative Assembly (MPR)
Regional Representative Council (DPD)
People's Representative Council (DPR)
2nd century
13th century
20 March 1602
1 January 1800
9 March 1942
17 August 1945
27 December 1949
• Unitary republic
17 August 1950
• Land
1,904,569[6] km2 (735,358 sq mi) (14th)
• 2016 estimate
• 2010 census
237,641,326[8] (4th)
• Density
138/km2 (357.4/sq mi) (88th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$3.740 trillion[9] (7th)
• Per capita
$14,020 (89th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$1.100 trillion (16th)
• Per capita
$4,120 (106th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 39.5[10]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.694[10]
medium · 116th
CurrencyIndonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)
Time zoneUTC+7 to +9 (various)
Date formatDD/MM/YYYY
Driving sideleft
Calling code+62
ISO 3166 codeID

Indonesia (ə/ (About this soundlisten) NEE-zhə, ə/ NEE-zee-ə; Indonesian: [ɪndoˈnesia]), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia]),[a] is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands,[11] and at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), the 14th largest by land area and 7th in the combined sea and land area.[12] With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country.[13] Java, the world's most populous island,[14] is home to more than half of the country's population.

The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected legislature. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second-most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.[15] The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and rubber.[16] China, the United States, Japan, Singapore, and India are Indonesia's major trading partners.[17]

The history of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. It has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam,[18][19] while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese, French and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of their 350-year presence in the archipelago. In the early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation-state emerged, and the independence movement began to take shape.[20] At the end of World War II, Indonesia proclaimed its independence in 1945. However, it was not until 1949 that the Netherlands recognised Indonesia's sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and 7th by GDP at PPP. The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN,[b] WTO, IMF, G20, and a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.


The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos (Ἰνδός) and the word nesos (νῆσος), meaning "Indian islands."[21] The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.[22] In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago."[23] In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.[24][25] However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia; they preferred Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and Insulinde.[26]

After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.[26] Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.[22]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Индонезиэ
адыгабзэ: Индонезие
Afrikaans: Indonesië
Akan: Indonesia
Alemannisch: Indonesien
አማርኛ: ኢንዶኔዥያ
Ænglisc: Indonesia
العربية: إندونيسيا
aragonés: Indonesia
arpetan: Endonèsie
asturianu: Indonesia
Avañe'ẽ: Indonésia
Aymar aru: Indunisya
azərbaycanca: İndoneziya
تۆرکجه: اندونزی
Banjar: Indunisia
Bân-lâm-gú: Ìn-nî
Basa Banyumasan: Indonesia
башҡортса: Индонезия
беларуская: Інданезія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Інданэзія
भोजपुरी: इंडोनेशिया
Bikol Central: Indonesya
Bislama: Indonesia
български: Индонезия
Boarisch: Indonesien
bosanski: Indonezija
brezhoneg: Indonezia
буряад: Индонези
català: Indonèsia
Чӑвашла: Индонези
Cebuano: Indonesia
čeština: Indonésie
Chamoru: Indonesia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Indonesia
Chi-Chewa: Indonesia
chiShona: Indonesia
chiTumbuka: Indonesia
corsu: Indunesia
Cymraeg: Indonesia
dansk: Indonesien
davvisámegiella: Indonesia
Deutsch: Indonesien
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިންޑޮނޭޝިޔާ
dolnoserbski: Indoneziska
eesti: Indoneesia
Ελληνικά: Ινδονησία
эрзянь: Индонезия
español: Indonesia
Esperanto: Indonezio
estremeñu: Indonésia
euskara: Indonesia
eʋegbe: Indonesia
فارسی: اندونزی
Fiji Hindi: Indonesia
føroyskt: Indonesia
français: Indonésie
Frysk: Yndoneezje
Gaeilge: An Indinéis
Gagauz: İndoneziya
Gàidhlig: An Innd-Innse
galego: Indonesia
ГӀалгӀай: ХIиндонези
Gĩkũyũ: Indonesia
ગુજરાતી: ઈંડોનેશિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: इंडोनेशिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yin-nì
한국어: 인도네시아
Hausa: Indonesiya
Hawaiʻi: ‘Inidonesia
հայերեն: Ինդոնեզիա
हिन्दी: इंडोनेशिया
hornjoserbsce: Indoneska
hrvatski: Indonezija
Bahasa Hulontalo: Indonesia
Ilokano: Indonesia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইন্দোনেশিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Indonesia
interlingua: Indonesia
Interlingue: Indonesia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐄᓅᓯᐊ
Iñupiak: Indonesia
isiZulu: I-Indonesia
íslenska: Indónesía
italiano: Indonesia
עברית: אינדונזיה
Kabɩyɛ: Ɛndonezi
kalaallisut: Indonesia
Kapampangan: Indonesia
ქართული: ინდონეზია
kaszëbsczi: Jindonezjô
қазақша: Индонезия
kernowek: Indonesi
Kinyarwanda: Indonesiya
Kiswahili: Indonesia
Kongo: Indonesia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Endonezi
kurdî: Îndonezya
Кыргызча: Индонезия
кырык мары: Индонези
لۊری شومالی: ٱندونزی
Latina: Indonesia
latviešu: Indonēzija
Lëtzebuergesch: Indonesien
лезги: Индонезия
lietuvių: Indonezija
Ligure: Indonexia
Limburgs: Indonesië
lingála: Indonezí
Lingua Franca Nova: Indonesia
Livvinkarjala: Indonezii
la .lojban.: bidgu'e
lumbaart: Indunesia
magyar: Indonézia
македонски: Индонезија
Malagasy: Indonezia
മലയാളം: ഇന്തോനേഷ്യ
Malti: Indoneżja
Māori: Initonīhia
მარგალური: ინდონეზია
مازِرونی: اندونزی
Bahasa Melayu: Indonesia
Minangkabau: Indonesia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Éng-nà̤
Mirandés: Andonésia
монгол: Индонез
Dorerin Naoero: Indonitsiya
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Idonisia
Nederlands: Indonesië
Nedersaksies: Indonezie
नेपाल भाषा: इन्दोनेसिया
Napulitano: Indonesia
нохчийн: ХӀиндонези
Nordfriisk: Indoneesien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Endonesya
norsk: Indonesia
norsk nynorsk: Indonesia
Novial: Indonesia
occitan: Indonesia
олык марий: Индонезий
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Indoneziya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇੰਡੋਨੇਸ਼ੀਆ
Pangasinan: Indonesiya
پنجابی: انڈونیشیا
Papiamentu: Indonesia
Patois: Indoniija
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ឥណ្ឌូនេស៊ី
Picard: Indonésie
Piemontèis: Indonesia
Tok Pisin: Indonisia
Plattdüütsch: Indonesien
polski: Indonezja
português: Indonésia
Qaraqalpaqsha: İndoneziya
qırımtatarca: İndoneziya
Ripoarisch: Indonesien
română: Indonezia
Runa Simi: Indunisya
русиньскый: Індонезія
русский: Индонезия
саха тыла: Индонезия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱱᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Initonesia
संस्कृतम्: इण्डोनेशिया
Sängö: Ênndonezïi
sardu: Indonesia
Scots: Indonesie
Seeltersk: Indonesien
shqip: Indonezia
sicilianu: Indunesia
Simple English: Indonesia
SiSwati: INdonesiya
slovenčina: Indonézia
slovenščina: Indonezija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їндонисїꙗ
ślůnski: Indůnezyjo
Soomaaliga: Indunisiya
Sranantongo: Indonesikondre
српски / srpski: Индонезија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Indonezija
Sunda: Indonésia
suomi: Indonesia
svenska: Indonesien
Tagalog: Indonesia
Taqbaylit: Indunisya
tarandíne: Indonesie
татарча/tatarça: Индонезия
తెలుగు: ఇండోనేషియా
tetun: Indonézia
тоҷикӣ: Индонезия
Türkçe: Endonezya
Türkmençe: Indoneziýa
удмурт: Индонезия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: ᨕᨗᨉᨚᨙᨊᨔᨗᨕ
українська: Індонезія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ھىندونېزىيە
Vahcuengh: Yinniz
vèneto: Indonexia
vepsän kel’: Indonezii
Tiếng Việt: Indonesia
walon: Indonezeye
West-Vlams: Indonesië
Winaray: Indonesia
Wolof: Endoneesi
Xitsonga: Indonesia
ייִדיש: אינדאנעזיע
Yorùbá: Indonésíà
粵語: 印尼
Zazaki: İndonezya
Zeêuws: Indonesië
žemaitėška: Induonezėjė