Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

Indo–Pakistani War of 1965
Part of the Indo–Pakistani wars and conflicts
Kashmir region 2004.jpg
Geopolitical map of Kashmir provided by the United States CIA, c. 2004
DateAugust – 23 September 1965


 India Pakistan
Commanders and leaders
India Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(President of India)
India Lal Bahadur Shastri
(Prime Minister of India)
Gen. J. N. Chaudhuri
(Chief of the Army Staff)
Lt. Gen. Harbaksh Singh
(GOC-in-C, Western Command)
Lt. Gen. P. O. Dunn
(GOC, I Corps)
Lt. Gen. Joginder Dhillon
(GOC, XI Corps)
Lt. Gen. Kashmir Katoch
(GOC, XV Corps)
AM Arjan Singh Aulakh
(Chief of the Air Staff)
Naval Ensign of India.svg Adm. Bhaskar Soman
(Chief of the Naval Staff)
Ayub Khan
(President of Pakistan)
Gen Musa Khan Hazara
(Cdr-in-Chief, Army)
Lt.Gen Bakhtiar Rana
(Commander, I Corps)
Lt.Gen Attiqur Rahman
(Commander, IV Corps)
MGen A.H. Malik
(GOC, 12th Infantry Division)
MGen Yahya Khan
(GOC, 7th Infantry Division)
AM Nur Khan
(Cdr-in-Chief, Air Force)
VAdm A.R. Khan
(Cdr-in-Chief, Navy)
RAdm S.M. Ahsan
((Cdr. Eastern Naval Command)
Cdre S.M. Anwar
(OTC, 25th Destroyer Sqn)

700,000 Infantry (Whole Army)[1]
700+ aircraft[2]
720 Tanks[1]

628 Artillery[3]

Effective strength on the West Pakistan Border[4]

  • 9 Infantry divisions (4 under-strength)
  • 3 Armored brigades

260,000 Infantry (Whole Army)[1]
280 aircraft[2]
756 Tanks[3]

552 Artillery[3]

Effective strength on the West Pakistan Border[4]

  • 6 Infantry divisions
  • 2 Armored divisions
Casualties and losses

Neutral claims[5][6]

Indian claims

  • 35[10]–59 aircraft lost[11] In addition, Indian sources claim that there were 13 IAF aircraft lost in accidents, and 3 Indian civilian aircraft shot down.[12]
  • 520 km2 (200 mi2) territory lost[13]

Pakistani claims

  • 8,200 men killed or captured[13]
  • 110[14]–113[13] aircraft destroyed
  • 500 tanks captured or destroyed [13]
  • 2602,[15] 2575 km2[13] territory gained
    1600 square miles territory gained according to Husain Haqqani

Neutral claims[5]

Pakistani claims

  • 19 aircraft lost[14]

Indian claims

  • 5259 men killed or captured [13]
  • 43[17] −73 aircraft destroyed [13]
  • 471 tanks destroyed [13]
  • 1,735 km2 (670 mi2) territory gained[13]

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II.[18][19] Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration.[20] Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear.[21]

India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28] Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan,[29][23][30][31][32][33][34] as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir[35] nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level.[30][36][37][38]

Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent.[39] Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides.[39][40] As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively.[40] The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day.[41][42][43]

Pre-war escalation

A declassified US State Department letter that confirms the existence of hundreds of "infiltrators" in the Indian-administered part of the disputed Kashmir region. Dated during the events running up to the 1965 war.

Since the Partition of British India in 1947, Pakistan and India remained in contention over several issues. Although the Kashmir conflict was the predominant issue dividing the nations, other border disputes existed, most notably over the Rann of Kutch, a barren region in the Indian state of Gujarat. The issue first arose in 1956 which ended with India regaining control over the disputed area.[44] Pakistani patrols began patrolling in territory controlled by India in January 1965, which was followed by attacks by both countries on each other's posts on 8 April 1965.[44][45] Initially involving border police from both nations, the disputed area soon witnessed intermittent skirmishes between the countries' armed forces. In June 1965, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson successfully persuaded both countries to end hostilities and set up a tribunal to resolve the dispute. The verdict, which came later in 1968, saw Pakistan awarded 350 square miles (910 km2) of the Rann of Kutch, as against its original claim of 3,500 square miles (9,100 km2).[46]

After its success in the Rann of Kutch, Pakistan, under the leadership of General Ayub Khan, believed the Indian Army would be unable to defend itself against a quick military campaign in the disputed territory of Kashmir as the Indian military had suffered a loss to China in 1962[21] in the Sino-Indian War. Pakistan believed that the population of Kashmir was generally discontented with Indian rule and that a resistance movement could be ignited by a few infiltrating saboteurs. Pakistan attempted to ignite the resistance movement by means of a covert infiltration, codenamed Operation Gibraltar.[47] The Pakistani infiltrators were soon discovered, however, their presence reported by local Kashmiris,[48] and the operation ended unsuccessfully.

Other Languages
Bahasa Indonesia: Perang India-Pakistan 1965
српски / srpski: Indijsko-pakistanski rat (1965)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Drugi indijsko-pakistanski rat