Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

  • indo–pakistani war of 1965
    part of the indo–pakistani wars and conflicts
    kashmir region 2004.jpg
    geopolitical map of kashmir provided by the united states cia, c. 2004
    dateaugust – 23 september 1965
    location
    western front
    • indo-pakistani border
      • line of control, working boundary, radcliffe line, sir creek, and zero-point
      • arabian sea

    eastern front

    • india-east pakistan border
    result

    inconclusive

    • united nations mandated ceasefire.
    • both sides claim victory
    • no permanent territorial changes (see tashkent declaration).
    belligerents
     india  pakistan
    commanders and leaders
    india sarvepalli radhakrishnan
    (president of india)
    india lal bahadur shastri
    (prime minister of india)
    gen. j. n. chaudhuri
    (chief of the army staff)
    lt. gen. harbaksh singh
    (goc-in-c, western command)
    lt. gen. p. o. dunn
    (goc, i corps)
    lt. gen. joginder dhillon
    (goc, xi corps)
    lt. gen. kashmir katoch
    (goc, xv corps)
    am arjan singh aulakh
    (chief of the air staff)
    naval ensign of india.svg adm. bhaskar soman
    (chief of the naval staff)
    ayub khan
    (president of pakistan)
    gen musa khan hazara
    (cdr-in-chief, army)
    lt.gen bakhtiar rana
    (commander, i corps)
    lt.gen attiqur rahman
    (commander, iv corps)
    mgen a.h. malik
    (goc, 12th infantry division)
    mgen yahya khan
    (goc, 7th infantry division)
    am nur khan
    (cdr-in-chief, air force)
    vadm a.r. khan
    (cdr-in-chief, navy)
    radm s.m. ahsan
    ((cdr. eastern naval command)
    cdre s.m. anwar
    (otc, 25th destroyer sqn)
    strength

    700,000 infantry (whole army)[1]
    700+ aircraft[2]
    720 tanks[1]

    • 186 centurions[3]
    • 346 shermans[1]
    • 90 amx[1][3]
    • 90 pt-76[1]

    628 artillery[3]

    • 66x 3.7"how[3]
    • 450x 25pdr[3]
    • 96x 5.5"[3]
    • 16x 7.2"[3]

    effective strength on the west pakistan border[4]

    • 9 infantry divisions (4 under-strength)
    • 3 armored brigades

    260,000 infantry (whole army)[1]
    280 aircraft[2]
    756 tanks[3]

    • 352 pattons[3]
    • 308 shermans[3]
    • 96 chaffees[3]

    552 artillery[3]

    • 72x105mm how[3]
    • 234x25pdr[3]
    • 126x155mm how[3]
    • 48x8" how[3]
    • 72x3.7" how[3]
    • pok lt btys[3]

    effective strength on the west pakistan border[4]

    • 6 infantry divisions
    • 2 armored divisions
    casualties and losses

    neutral claims[5][6]

    • 3,000 men[5]
    • 150[7]–190 tanks[5]
    • 60–75 aircraft[5]
    • 540 km2 (210 mi2) of territory lost (primarily in kashmir)[8][9]

    indian claims

    • 35[10]–59 aircraft lost[11] in addition, indian sources claim that there were 13 iaf aircraft lost in accidents, and 3 indian civilian aircraft shot down.[12]
    • 520 km2 (200 mi2) territory lost[13]

    pakistani claims

    • 8,200 men killed or captured[13]
    • 110[14]–113[13] aircraft destroyed
    • 500 tanks captured or destroyed [13]
    • 2602,[15] 2575 km2[13] territory gained
      1600 square miles territory gained according to husain haqqani

    neutral claims[5]

    • 3,800 men[5]
    • 200[5]-300 tanks[16]
    • 20 aircraft[5]
    • over 1,840 km2 (710 mi2) of territory lost (in sindh, lahore, sialkot, and kashmir sectors)[8][9]

    pakistani claims

    • 19 aircraft lost[14]

    indian claims

    • 5259 men killed or captured [13]
    • 43[17] −73 aircraft destroyed [13]
    • 471 tanks destroyed [13]
    • 1,735 km2 (670 mi2) territory gained[13]

    the indo-pakistani war of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between april 1965 and september 1965 between pakistan and india. the conflict began following pakistan's operation gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into jammu and kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against indian rule. india retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on west pakistan. the seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since world war ii.[18][19] hostilities between the two countries ended after a united nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the soviet union and the united states, and the subsequent issuance of the tashkent declaration.[20] much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in kashmir and along the border between india and pakistan. this war saw the largest amassing of troops in kashmir since the partition of india in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between india and pakistan. most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. many details of this war, like those of other indo-pakistani wars, remain unclear.[21]

    india had the upper hand over pakistan when the ceasefire was declared.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28] although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for pakistan,[29][23][30][31][32][33][34] as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in kashmir[35] nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level.[30][36][37][38]

    internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater cold war, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent.[39] before the war, the united states and the united kingdom had been major material allies of both india and pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. during and after the conflict, both india and pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an american and british embargo on military aid to the opposing sides.[39][40] as a consequence, india and pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the soviet union and china, respectively.[40] the perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the west and the subcontinent. in spite of improved relations with the u.s. and britain since the end of the cold war, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day.[41][42][43]

  • pre-war escalation
  • the war
  • assessment of losses
  • ceasefire
  • intelligence failures
  • involvement of other nations
  • aftermath
  • awards
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • sources and external links

Indo–Pakistani War of 1965
Part of the Indo–Pakistani wars and conflicts
Kashmir region 2004.jpg
Geopolitical map of Kashmir provided by the United States CIA, c. 2004
DateAugust – 23 September 1965
Location
Result

Inconclusive

Belligerents
 India  Pakistan
Commanders and leaders
India Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(President of India)
India Lal Bahadur Shastri
(Prime Minister of India)
Gen. J. N. Chaudhuri
(Chief of the Army Staff)
Lt. Gen. Harbaksh Singh
(GOC-in-C, Western Command)
Lt. Gen. P. O. Dunn
(GOC, I Corps)
Lt. Gen. Joginder Dhillon
(GOC, XI Corps)
Lt. Gen. Kashmir Katoch
(GOC, XV Corps)
AM Arjan Singh Aulakh
(Chief of the Air Staff)
Naval Ensign of India.svg Adm. Bhaskar Soman
(Chief of the Naval Staff)
Ayub Khan
(President of Pakistan)
Gen Musa Khan Hazara
(Cdr-in-Chief, Army)
Lt.Gen Bakhtiar Rana
(Commander, I Corps)
Lt.Gen Attiqur Rahman
(Commander, IV Corps)
MGen A.H. Malik
(GOC, 12th Infantry Division)
MGen Yahya Khan
(GOC, 7th Infantry Division)
AM Nur Khan
(Cdr-in-Chief, Air Force)
VAdm A.R. Khan
(Cdr-in-Chief, Navy)
RAdm S.M. Ahsan
((Cdr. Eastern Naval Command)
Cdre S.M. Anwar
(OTC, 25th Destroyer Sqn)
Strength

700,000 Infantry (Whole Army)[1]
700+ aircraft[2]
720 Tanks[1]

628 Artillery[3]

Effective strength on the West Pakistan Border[4]

  • 9 Infantry divisions (4 under-strength)
  • 3 Armored brigades

260,000 Infantry (Whole Army)[1]
280 aircraft[2]
756 Tanks[3]

552 Artillery[3]

Effective strength on the West Pakistan Border[4]

  • 6 Infantry divisions
  • 2 Armored divisions
Casualties and losses

Neutral claims[5][6]

Indian claims

  • 35[10]–59 aircraft lost[11] In addition, Indian sources claim that there were 13 IAF aircraft lost in accidents, and 3 Indian civilian aircraft shot down.[12]
  • 520 km2 (200 mi2) territory lost[13]

Pakistani claims

  • 8,200 men killed or captured[13]
  • 110[14]–113[13] aircraft destroyed
  • 500 tanks captured or destroyed [13]
  • 2602,[15] 2575 km2[13] territory gained
    1600 square miles territory gained according to Husain Haqqani

Neutral claims[5]

Pakistani claims

  • 19 aircraft lost[14]

Indian claims

  • 5259 men killed or captured [13]
  • 43[17] −73 aircraft destroyed [13]
  • 471 tanks destroyed [13]
  • 1,735 km2 (670 mi2) territory gained[13]

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II.[18][19] Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration.[20] Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear.[21]

India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28] Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan,[29][23][30][31][32][33][34] as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir[35] nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level.[30][36][37][38]

Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent.[39] Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides.[39][40] As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively.[40] The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day.[41][42][43]

Other Languages
Bahasa Indonesia: Perang India-Pakistan 1965
српски / srpski: Indijsko-pakistanski rat (1965)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Drugi indijsko-pakistanski rat