Indo-Iranian languages

South, Central, Western Asia, South East Europe and the Caucasus / Total speakers = approximately 1.5 billion in 15 countries
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
  • Indo-Iranian
ISO 639-5iir
Indo-European branches map.svg
The approximate present-day distribution of the Indo-European branches of Eurasia:

The Indo-Iranian languages (Indo-Iranic languages[2][3]), or Aryan languages[4] constitute the largest and southeasternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family. It has more than 1.5 billion speakers, stretching from Europe (Romani), Turkey (Kurdish and Zaza–Gorani) and the Caucasus (Ossetian) eastward to Xinjiang (Sarikoli) and Assam (Assamese), and south to Sri Lanka (Sinhala) and the Maldives (Maldivian). Furthermore, there are large communities of Indo-Iranian speakers in northwestern Europe (the United Kingdom), North America (United States and Canada), and Australia.

The common ancestor of all of the languages in this family is called Proto-Indo-Iranian—also known as Common Aryan—which was spoken in approximately the late 3rd millennium BC. The three branches of the modern Indo-Iranian languages are Indo-Aryan, Iranian, and Nuristani. Additionally, sometimes a fourth independent branch, Dardic, is posited, but recent scholarship in general places Dardic languages as archaic members of the Indo-Aryan branch.[5]


Chart classifying Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European language family
Distribution of the Indo-Iranian languages

The Indo-Iranian languages consist of three groups:

Indo-Iranian languages are spoken by more than 1.5 billion people. The languages with the most speakers are a part of the Indo-Aryan group: Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), (~590 million[6]), Bengali (205 million[7]), Punjabi (100 million), Marathi (75 million), Gujarati (50 million), Bhojpuri (40 million), Awadhi (40 million), Maithili (35 million), Odia (35 million), Marwari (30 million), Sindhi (25 million), Assamese (24 million), Rajasthani (20 million), Chhattisgarhi (18 million), Sinhala (19 million), Nepali (17 million), Bishnupuriya (12 million)[8] and Rangpuri (15 million). Among the Iranian branch, major languages are Persian (60 million), Pashto (ca. 50 million), Kurdish (35 million),[9] and Balochi (8 million). There are also many smaller languages.

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Hind-İran dilləri
беларуская: Арыйскія мовы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Індаіранскія мовы
dolnoserbski: Indoirańske rěcy
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yin-thu Iran Ngî-chhu̍k
hornjoserbsce: Indoiranske rěče
Bahasa Indonesia: Rumpun bahasa Indo-Iran
Lingua Franca Nova: Linguas indoiranian
Nederlands: Indo-Iraanse talen
norsk nynorsk: Indoiranske språk
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hind-eroniy tillari
Simple English: Indo-Iranian languages
slovenčina: Indoiránske jazyky
slovenščina: Indoiranski jeziki
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Indoiranski jezici
українська: Індоіранські мови
Tiếng Việt: Ngữ tộc Ấn-Iran