Indian national calendar

Mohar of Gorkha king Prithvi Narayan Shah dated Saka Era 1685 (AD 1763)

The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Saka calendar, is the official civil calendar in use in India along with the Vikram Samvat calendar. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, in news broadcasts by All India Radio and in calendars and communications issued by the Government of India. [1] The Saka calendar is also used in Java and Bali among Indonesian Hindus. Nyepi, the "Day of Silence", is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali. Nepal's Nepal Sambat evolved from the Saka calendar.

The term may also ambiguously refer to the Hindu calendar; the Saka era is also commonly used by other calendars.

Calendar structure

The calendar months follow the signs of the tropical zodiac rather than the sidereal zodiac normally used with Hindu calendar.

# Month (Sanskrit) Length Start date (Gregorian) Tropical zodiac Tropical zodiac (Sanskrit)
1 Chaitra 30/31 March 22/21 Aries Meṣa
2 Vaishākha 31 April 21 Taurus Vṛṣabha
3 Jyēshtha 31 May 22 Gemini Mithuna
4 Āshādha 31 June 22 Cancer Karkata
5 Shrāvana 31 July 23 Leo Siṃha
6 Bhaadra 31 August 23 Virgo Kanyā
7 Āshwin 30 September 23 Libra Tulā
8 Kārtika 30 October 23 Scorpio Vṛścik‌‌‌a
9 Agrahayana 30 November 22 Sagitarius Dhanur
10 Pausha 30 December 22 Capricorn Makara
11 Māgha 30 January 21 Aquarius Kumbha
12 Phalguna 30 February 20 Pisces Mīna

In leap years, Chaitra has 31 days and starts on March 21 instead. The months in the first half of the year all have 31 days, to take into account the slower movement of the sun across the ecliptic at this time.

The names of the months are derived from older, Hindu lunisolar calendars, so variations in spelling exist, and there is a possible source of confusion as to what calendar a date belongs to.

Years are counted in the Saka Era, which starts its year 0 in the year 78 of the Common Era. To determine leap years, add 78 to the Saka year - if the result is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar, then the Saka year is a leap year as well. Its structure is like the Persian calendar.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Indiese kalender
বাংলা: শকাব্দ
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Індыйскі нацыянальны каляндар
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސާކާ
galego: Shaka Samvat
한국어: 인도 국정력
Bahasa Indonesia: Kalender Saka
Basa Jawa: Pananggalan Saka
Kiswahili: Shaka Samvat
മലയാളം: ശകവർഷം
Nederlands: Indiase kalender
Simple English: Indian national calendar
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Indijski nacionalni kalendar
svenska: Sakakalendern