|Republic of India|
Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E / 28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E / 28.6133; 77.2083
18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18.97500; 72.82583
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ram Nath Kovind|
|Independence from the United Kingdom|
|15 August 1947|
|26 January 1950|
|3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)[d] (7th)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2011 census
|397.2/km2 (1,028.7/sq mi) (31st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$10.385 trillion (3rd)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|$2.848 trillion (6th)|
• Per capita
medium · 79th
|HDI (2015)|| 0.624|
medium · 131st
|Currency||Indian rupee (₹) (INR)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
|DST is not observed|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||IN|
India (IAST: Bhārat), also called the Republic of India (IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE—one of the world's earliest civilisations. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Large-scale urbanisation occurred on the Ganges in the first millennium BCE leading to the Mahajanapadas, and Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya, Satavahana and Gupta empires; the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as Southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, and Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture. Much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate; the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The country was unified in the 17th century by the Mughal Empire. In the 18th century, the subcontinent came under the Maratha Empire and in the 19th under the British East India Company, later shifting to British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947.
In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories. India is widely recognised for its wide cinema, rich cuisine and lush wildlife and vegetation. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.