Republic of India

Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]
Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana"[2][3]
"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[4][2]
National song
"Vande Mataram" (Sanskrit)
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"[a][1][2]
Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.
Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
regions claimed but not controlled shown in light green
CapitalNew Delhi
28°36′50″N 77°12′30″E / 28°36′50″N 77°12′30″E / 28.61389; 77.20833
Largest city
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
National languageNone[9][10][11]
See Religion in India
MembershipUN, WTO, BRICS, SAARC, SCO, G8+5, G20, Commonwealth of Nations
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Ram Nath Kovind
Venkaiah Naidu
Narendra Modi
Sharad Arvind Bobde
Om Birla
Rajya Sabha
Lok Sabha
• Dominion
15 August 1947
• Republic
26 January 1950
• Total
3,287,263[6] km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)[c] (7th)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
Increase1,352,642,280[13][14] (2nd)
• 2011 census
1,210,854,977[15][16] (2nd)
• Density
403.8/km2 (1,045.8/sq mi) (31st)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $11.326 trillion[17] (3rd)
• Per capita
Increase $8,378[17] (119th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.936 trillion[17] (5th)
• Per capita
Increase $2,172[17] (142nd)
Gini (2013)33.9[18]
medium · 79th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.640[19]
medium · 130th
CurrencyIndian rupee () (INR)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
DST is not observed
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
  • yyyy-mm-dd[d]
Driving sideleft
Calling code+91
ISO 3166 codeIN
Internet (others)

India (Hindi: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[20] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[e] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago.[21]Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity.[22] Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE.[23]By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India.[24]The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern regions.[25]By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism,[26]and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity.[27]Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin.[28]Their collective era was suffused with wide-ranging creativity,[29] but also marked by the declining status of women,[30] and the incorporation of untouchability into an organised system of belief.[f][31] In south India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of southeast Asia.[32]

In the early medieval era, Christianity, Islam, Judaism and Zoroastrianism put down roots on India's southern and western coasts.[33]Armies from Central Asia intermittently overran India's plains,[34]eventually establishing the Delhi sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval Islam.[35]In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara Empire created a long-lasting composite Hindu culture in south India.[36]In the Punjab, Sikhism emerged, rejecting institutionalised religion.[37]The Mughal empire, in 1526, ushered in two centuries of relative peace,[38]leaving a legacy of luminous architecture.[g][39]Gradually expanding rule of the British East India Company followed, turning India into a colonial economy, but also consolidating its sovereignty.[40] British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly,[41] but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root.[42]A pioneering and influential nationalist movement emerged,[43] which was noted for nonviolent resistance and led India to its independence in 1947.

India is a secular federal republic governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India's population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1,211 million in 2011.[44]During the same time, its nominal per capita income increased from US$64 annually to US$1,498, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951,[45] India has become a fast-growing major economy, a hub for information technology services, with an expanding middle class.[46] It has a space programme which includes several planned or completed extraterrestrial missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.[47]India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality.[48]India is a nuclear weapons state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century.[49]Among the socio-economic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition,[50]and rising levels of air pollution.[51] India's land is megadiverse, with four biodiversity hotspots.[52] Its forest cover comprises 21.4% of its area.[53] India's wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India's culture,[54] is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected habitats.


According to the Oxford English Dictionary (Third Edition 2009), the name "India" is derived from the Classical Latin India, a reference to South Asia and an uncertain region to its east; and in turn derived successively from: Hellenistic Greek India ( Ἰνδία); ancient Greek Indos ( Ἰνδός); Old Persian Hindush, an eastern province of the Achaemenid empire; and ultimately its cognate, the Sanskrit Sindhu, or "river," but especially the Indus river and, by implication, its well-settled southern basin.[55][56] The Ἰνδοί), which translates as "The people of the Indus".[57]

The term Bharat (Bhārat; pronounced [ˈbʱaːɾət] (About this soundlisten)), mentioned in both Indian epic poetry and the Constitution of India,[58][59] is used in its variations by many Indian languages. A modern rendering of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which applied originally to a region of the Gangetic Valley,[60][61] Bharat gained increased currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.[58][62]

Hindustan ([ɦɪndʊˈstaːn] (About this soundlisten)) is a Middle Persian name for India, introduced during the Mughal Empire and used widely since. Its meaning has varied, referring to a region encompassing present-day northern India and Pakistan or to India in its near entirety.[58][62][63]

Other Languages
Acèh: India
Адыгэбзэ: Индиэ
адыгабзэ: Индие
Afrikaans: Indië
Akan: India
Alemannisch: Indien
አማርኛ: ህንድ
Ænglisc: Indea
العربية: الهند
aragonés: India
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܗܢܕܘ
armãneashti: India
arpetan: Ende
অসমীয়া: ভাৰত
asturianu: India
Avañe'ẽ: Índia
Aymar aru: Indya
azərbaycanca: Hindistan
تۆرکجه: هیندوستان
Bali: India
বাংলা: ভারত
Banjar: India
Bân-lâm-gú: Ìn-tō͘
Basa Banyumasan: India
башҡортса: Һиндостан
беларуская: Індыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Індыя
भोजपुरी: भारत
Bikol Central: Indya
Bislama: India
български: Индия
Boarisch: Indien
བོད་ཡིག: རྒྱ་གར།
bosanski: Indija
brezhoneg: India
буряад: Энэдхэг
català: Índia
Чӑвашла: Инди
Cebuano: Indya
čeština: Indie
Chamoru: India
Chavacano de Zamboanga: India
Chi-Chewa: India
chiShona: India
chiTumbuka: India
corsu: India
Cymraeg: India
dansk: Indien
davvisámegiella: India
Deitsch: India
Deutsch: Indien
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިންޑިޔާ
dolnoserbski: Indiska
डोटेली: भारत
ཇོང་ཁ: རྒྱ་གར
eesti: India
Ελληνικά: Ινδία
español: India
Esperanto: Barato
estremeñu: La Índia
euskara: India
eʋegbe: India
فارسی: هند
Fiji Hindi: India
føroyskt: India
français: Inde
Frysk: Yndia
furlan: Indie
Gaeilge: An India
Gaelg: Yn Injey
Gagauz: İndiya
Gàidhlig: Na h-Innseachan
galego: India
ГӀалгӀай: ХIиндиче
贛語: 印度
Gĩkũyũ: India
گیلکی: هند
ગુજરાતી: ભારત
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌹𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: भारत
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yin-thu
한국어: 인도
Hausa: Indiya
Hawaiʻi: ‘Īnia
հայերեն: Հնդկաստան
Արեւմտահայերէն: Հնդկաստան
हिन्दी: भारत
hornjoserbsce: Indiska
hrvatski: Indija
Ido: India
Igbo: Ndia
Ilokano: India
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ভারত
Bahasa Indonesia: India
interlingua: India
Interlingue: India
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐃᓐᑎᐊ
Ирон: Инди
isiXhosa: IIndia
isiZulu: India
íslenska: Indland
italiano: India
עברית: הודו
Jawa: Indhi
Kabɩyɛ: Ɛndɩ
kalaallisut: India
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಭಾರತ
Kapampangan: India
къарачай-малкъар: Индия
ქართული: ინდოეთი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: بًارت
kaszëbsczi: Indie
қазақша: Үндістан
kernowek: Eynda
Kinyarwanda: Ubuhinde
Kirundi: Ubuhindi
Kiswahili: Uhindi
коми: Индия
Kongo: India
Kreyòl ayisyen: End
kurdî: Hindistan
Кыргызча: Индия
لۊری شومالی: هند
latgaļu: Iņdeja
Latina: India
latviešu: Indija
Lëtzebuergesch: Indien
лезги: Индия
lietuvių: Indija
Ligure: India
Limburgs: India
lingála: India
Lingua Franca Nova: Barat
Livvinkarjala: Indii
la .lojban.: xingu'e
lumbaart: India
magyar: India
मैथिली: भारत
македонски: Индија
Malagasy: India
മലയാളം: ഇന്ത്യ
Malti: Indja
Māori: Īnia
मराठी: भारत
მარგალური: ინდოეთი
مصرى: الهند
مازِرونی: هند
Bahasa Melayu: India
Minangkabau: India
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Éng-dô
Mirandés: Índia
мокшень: Индие
монгол: Энэтхэг
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အိန္ဒိယနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: India
Dorerin Naoero: Indjiya
Nederlands: India
Nedersaksies: India
नेपाली: भारत
नेपाल भाषा: भारत
日本語: インド
Napulitano: Innia
нохчийн: ХӀинди
Nordfriisk: Indien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Endya
norsk: India
norsk nynorsk: India
Nouormand: Înde
Novial: India
occitan: Índia
олык марий: Индий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଭାରତ
Oromoo: Indiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hindiston
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਭਾਰਤ
पालि: भारत
پنجابی: ھندستان
Papiamentu: India
پښتو: هند
Patois: India
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ឥណ្ឌា
Picard: Inde
Piemontèis: India
Tok Pisin: India
Plattdüütsch: Indien
polski: Indie
português: Índia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Hindistan
qırımtatarca: İndistan
reo tahiti: ’Inītia
română: India
romani čhib: Bharat
rumantsch: India
Runa Simi: Indya
русиньскый: Індія
русский: Индия
саха тыла: Индия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ
Gagana Samoa: Igitia
संस्कृतम्: भारतम्
Sängö: Indïi
sardu: Ìndia
Scots: Indie
Seeltersk: Indien
Sesotho: India
Sesotho sa Leboa: India
shqip: India
sicilianu: Innia
Simple English: India
سنڌي: ڀارت
SiSwati: INdiya
slovenčina: India
slovenščina: Indija
ślůnski: Indyje
Soomaaliga: Hindiya
کوردی: ھیندستان
Sranantongo: Indiakondre
српски / srpski: Индија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Indija
ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး : ဢိၼ်ႇတိယ
Sunda: India
suomi: Intia
svenska: Indien
Tagalog: India
தமிழ்: இந்தியா
Taqbaylit: Lhend
tarandíne: Indie
татарча/tatarça: Һиндстан
తెలుగు: భారత దేశం
tetun: Índia
ትግርኛ: ህንድ
тоҷикӣ: Ҳиндустон
lea faka-Tonga: ʻInitia
ತುಳು: ಭಾರತ
Türkçe: Hindistan
Türkmençe: Hindistan
Twi: India
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Indiɛn
удмурт: Индия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: India
українська: Індія
اردو: بھارت
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ھىندىستان
Vahcuengh: Yindu
vèneto: India
vepsän kel’: Indii
Tiếng Việt: Ấn Độ
Volapük: Lindän
Võro: India
walon: Inde
文言: 印度
West-Vlams: Indië
Winaray: India
Wolof: End
吴语: 印度
Xitsonga: Indiya
ייִדיש: אינדיע
Yorùbá: Índíà
粵語: 印度
Zazaki: Hindıstan
Zeêuws: India
žemaitėška: Indėjė
中文: 印度