InSight

InSight
InSight spacecraft model.png
MarCO duo spacecraft model.png
Top: Artist's rendering of the InSight lander
Bottom: Artist's rendering of the MarCO CubeSats
NamesInterior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport
Geophysical Monitoring Station
Discovery 12
Mission typeMars lander
OperatorNASA / JPL
2018-042A
Mars.NASA.gov/InSight
Mission durationPlanned: 709 sols (728 days)[1][2]
Current: 200 sols (204 days) since landing
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerLockheed Martin Space Systems
Launch mass694 kg (1,530 lb)[3]
Landing mass358 kg (789 lb)[3]
DimensionsDeployed: 6.0 × 1.56 × 1.0 m (19.7 × 5.1 × 3.3 ft)[4]-
Power600 W, solar / Li-ion battery[3]
Start of mission
Launch date5 May 2018, 11:05 (2018-05-05UTC11:05) UTC[5][6]
RocketAtlas V 401[7]
Launch siteVandenberg SLC-3E[7]
ContractorUnited Launch Alliance
Mars lander
Landing date26 November 2018, 19:52:59 (2018-11-26UTC19:52:59) UTC[2]
Landing siteElysium Planitia[8][9]
4°30′09″N 135°37′24″E / 4°30′09″N 135°37′24″E / InSight landing site)[10]
Flyby of Mars
Spacecraft componentMars Cube One (MarCO)
Closest approach26 November 2018, 19:52:59 (2018-11-26UTC19:52:59) UTC[2]
Distance3,500 km (2,200 mi)[11]
InSight Mission Logo.svg
← GRAIL
Lucy →
 

The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight)[1] mission is a robotic lander designed to study the deep interior of the planet Mars.[1][12][13] It was manufactured by Lockheed Martin, is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and most of its scientific instruments were built by European agencies. The mission launched on 5 May 2018 at 11:05 UTC aboard an Atlas V-401 rocket[5] and successfully landed[14] at Elysium Planitia on Mars on 26 November 2018 at 19:52:59 UTC.[15][16][5][17] InSight traveled 483 million km (300 million mi) during its journey.[18]

InSight's objectives are to place a seismometer, called SEIS, on the surface of Mars to measure seismic activity and provide accurate 3D models of the planet's interior; and measure internal heat flow using a heat probe called HP3 to study Mars' early geological evolution.[19] This could bring a new understanding of how the Solar System's terrestrial planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars – and Earth's Moon form and evolve.

The lander was originally planned for launch in March 2016.[13][20] Following a persistent vacuum failure in the SEIS instrument prior to launch, with the 2016 launch window missed, InSight was returned to Lockheed Martin's facility in Denver, Colorado, for storage. NASA officials decided in March 2016 to delay launching InSight to May 2018.[6] This allowed time for the seismometer to be fixed, although it increased the total cost from US$675 million to US$830 million.[21] By reusing technology from the Mars Phoenix lander, which successfully landed on Mars in 2008, mission costs and risks were reduced.[22]

History

Discovery Program selection

InSight comes together with the backshell and surface lander being joined, 2015.

InSight was initially known as GEMS (Geophysical Monitoring Station), but its name was changed in early 2012 following a request by NASA.[23] Out of 28 proposals from 2010,[24] it was one of the three Discovery Program finalists receiving US$3 million in May 2011 to develop a detailed concept study.[25] In August 2012, InSight was selected for development and launch.[13] Managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with participation from scientists from several countries, the mission was cost-capped at US$425 million, not including launch vehicle funding.[26]

Schedule issues

Lockheed Martin began construction of the lander on 19 May 2014,[27] with general testing starting in 27 May 2015.[28]

A persistent vacuum leak in the CNES-supplied seismometer known as the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) led NASA to postpone the planned launch in March 2016 to May 2018. When InSight was delayed, the rest of the spacecraft was returned to Lockheed Martin's factory in Colorado for storage, and the Atlas V rocket intended to launch the spacecraft was reassigned to the WorldView-4 mission.[29]

On 9 March 2016, NASA officials announced that InSight would be delayed until the 2018 launch window at an estimated cost of US$150 million.[6][30] The spacecraft was rescheduled to launch on 5 May 2018 for a Mars landing on 26 November at 3 p.m. The flight plan remained unchanged with launch using an Atlas V rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.[6][30] NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory was tasked with redesigning and building a new vacuum enclosure for the SEIS instrument, while CNES conducted instrument integration and testing.[31][32]

On 22 November 2017 InSight completed testing in a thermal vacuum, also known as TVAC testing, where the spacecraft is put in simulated space conditions with reduced pressure and various thermal loads.[33] On 23 January 2018, after a long storage, its solar panels were once again deployed and tested, and a second silicon chip containing 1.6 million names from the public was added to the lander.[34]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: InSight
azərbaycanca: InSight
বাংলা: ইনসাইট
Bân-lâm-gú: InSight
беларуская: InSight
bosanski: InSight
brezhoneg: InSight
català: InSight
čeština: InSight
dansk: InSight
Deutsch: InSight
eesti: InSight
Ελληνικά: InSight
español: InSight
Esperanto: Insight
euskara: InSight
فارسی: این‌سایت
français: InSight
हिन्दी: इनसाइट
hrvatski: InSight
Bahasa Indonesia: InSight
italiano: InSight
עברית: InSight
latviešu: InSight
lietuvių: InSight
Limburgs: InSight
magyar: InSight
മലയാളം: ഇൻസൈറ്റ്
Nederlands: InSight
norsk: InSight
norsk nynorsk: InSight
پنجابی: ان سائیٹ
polski: InSight
português: InSight
română: InSight
русский: InSight
Scots: InSight
slovenčina: InSight
српски / srpski: Инсајт (сонда)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: InSight
suomi: InSight
svenska: Insight
Tagalog: InSight
தமிழ்: இன்சைட்
Türkçe: InSight
українська: InSight
اردو: ان سائیٹ
Tiếng Việt: InSight
吴语: 洞察号