Illinois

State of Illinois
Flag of IllinoisState seal of Illinois
FlagSeal
Nickname(s):
Land of Lincoln, Prairie State
Motto(s): State Sovereignty, National Union
State song(s): "Illinois"
Map of the United States with Illinois highlighted
Official languageEnglish[1]
Spoken languagesEnglish (80.8%)
Spanish (14.9%)
Other (5.1%)
DemonymIllinoisan
CapitalSpringfield
Largest cityChicago
Largest metroGreater Chicago
AreaRanked 25th
 • Total57,914 sq mi
(149,997 km2)
 • Width210 miles (338 km)
 • Length390 miles (628 km)
 • % water3.99
 • Latitude36° 58′ N to 42° 30′ N
 • Longitude87° 30′ W to 91° 31′ W
PopulationRanked 6th
 • Total12,741,080 (2018)
 • Density232/sq mi  (89.4/km2)
Ranked 12th
 • Median household income$58,321 (2018) [2] (20th)
Elevation
 • Highest pointCharles Mound[3][4][5]
1,235 ft (376.4 m)
 • Mean600 ft  (180 m)
 • Lowest pointConfluence of Mississippi River and Ohio River[4][5]
280 ft (85 m)
Before statehoodIllinois Territory
Admission to UnionDecember 3, 1818 (21st)
GovernorJ. B. Pritzker (D)
Lieutenant GovernorJuliana Stratton (D)
LegislatureIllinois General Assembly
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsDick Durbin (D)
Tammy Duckworth (D)
U.S. House delegation13 Democrats
5 Republicans (list)
Time zoneCentral: UTC -6/-5
ISO 3166US-IL
AbbreviationsIL, www.illinois.gov
Illinois state symbols
Flag of Illinois.svg
Seal of Illinois.svg
Living insignia
AmphibianEastern tiger salamander
BirdNorthern cardinal
ButterflyMonarch butterfly
FishBluegill
FlowerViolet
GrassBig bluestem
MammalWhite-tailed deer
ReptilePainted turtle
TreeWhite oak
Inanimate insignia
DanceSquare dance
FoodGold Rush Apple, popcorn
FossilTully monster
MineralFluorite
Slogan"Land of Lincoln"
SoilDrummer silty clay loam
State route marker
Illinois state route marker
State quarter
Illinois quarter dollar coin
Released in 2003
Lists of United States state symbols

Illinois (ɔɪ/ (About this soundlisten) NOY) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is the 6th-most populous U.S. state and 25th-largest state in terms of land area, and is often noted as a microcosm of the entire United States.[6] With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in northern and central Illinois, and natural resources such as coal, timber, and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, and is a major transportation hub. The Port of Chicago connects the state to other global ports around the world from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean; as well as the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway on the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, and the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports. Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms[6] and, through the 1980s, in politics.

The capital of Illinois is Springfield in the central part of the state. Although today the state's largest population center is in and around Chicago in the northeastern part of the state, the state's European population grew first in the west, with French who settled along the Mississippi River and gave the area the name Illinois Country. After the American Revolutionary War established the United States, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, and the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. After construction of the Erie Canal increased traffic and trade through the Great Lakes, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River, at one of the few natural harbors on southern Lake Michigan.[7] John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden. The Illinois and Michigan Canal (1848) made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper. New railroads carried immigrants to new homes, as well as being used to ship commodity crops to Eastern markets. The state became a transportation hub for the nation.[8]

By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars. The Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who created the city's famous jazz and blues cultures.[9][10] Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, became a global alpha-level city.

Three U.S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan, Land of Lincoln, which has been displayed on its license plates since 1954.[11][12] The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, located in the state capital of Springfield, and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago.

Etymology

"Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name that was spelled in many different ways in the early records.[13]

American scholars previously thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois.[14][15] This etymology is not supported by the Illinois language,[citation needed] as the word for "man" is ireniwa, and plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has also been said to mean "tribe of superior men",[16] which is a false etymology. The name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe· (pluralized as ilinwe·k). The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, Illinois, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area. The Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms.[17][18]

Other Languages
Acèh: Illinois
Afrikaans: Illinois
አማርኛ: ኢሊኖይ
Ænglisc: Illinois
العربية: إلينوي
aragonés: Illinois
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܠܝܢܘܝ
arpetan: Ilinouès
asturianu: Illinois
Avañe'ẽ: Illinois
Aymar aru: Illinois suyu
azərbaycanca: İllinoys
বাংলা: ইলিনয়
Bân-lâm-gú: Illinois
башҡортса: Иллинойс
беларуская: Ілінойс
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Іліной
भोजपुरी: इलिनोइ
Bikol Central: Illinois
Bislama: Illinois
български: Илинойс
Boarisch: Illinois
bosanski: Illinois
brezhoneg: Illinois
буряад: Иллинойс
català: Illinois
Cebuano: Illinois
čeština: Illinois
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Illinois
corsu: Illinois
Cymraeg: Illinois
dansk: Illinois
davvisámegiella: Illinois
Deitsch: Illinois
Deutsch: Illinois
eesti: Illinois
Ελληνικά: Ιλινόι
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Illinòis
español: Illinois
Esperanto: Ilinojso
euskara: Illinois
فارسی: ایلینوی
Fiji Hindi: Illinois
føroyskt: Illinois
français: Illinois
Gaeilge: Illinois
Gaelg: Illinois
Gagauz: İllinois
Gàidhlig: Illinois
galego: Illinois
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌹𐌻𐌻𐌹𐌽𐍅𐌰
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Illinois
хальмг: Иллинойс
한국어: 일리노이주
Hawaiʻi: ‘Ilinoe
հայերեն: Իլինոյս
हिन्दी: इलिनॉय
hornjoserbsce: Illinois
hrvatski: Illinois
Igbo: Ilinoi
Ilokano: Illinois
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইলিনয়স
Bahasa Indonesia: Illinois
interlingua: Illinois
Interlingue: Illinois
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐄᓚᓄᐃᔅ
Iñupiak: Illinois
íslenska: Illinois
italiano: Illinois
עברית: אילינוי
Basa Jawa: Illinois
Kabɩyɛ: Ilnuwaa
Kapampangan: Illinois
ქართული: ილინოისი
қазақша: Иллинойс
kernowek: Illinois
Kiswahili: Illinois
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ilinwa
kurdî: Illinois
Кыргызча: Иллинойс
кырык мары: Иллинойс (штат)
Ladino: Illinois
لۊری شومالی: ایلینوی
Latina: Illinoesia
latviešu: Ilinoisa
Lëtzebuergesch: Illinois
lietuvių: Ilinojus
Ligure: Illinois
Limburgs: Illinois
Lingua Franca Nova: Illinois
lumbaart: Illinois
magyar: Illinois
मैथिली: इलिनोइ
македонски: Илиноис
Malagasy: Illinois
മലയാളം: ഇല്ലിനോയി
Māori: Illinois
मराठी: इलिनॉय
მარგალური: ილინოისი
مصرى: ايلينوى
مازِرونی: ایلینویز
Bahasa Melayu: Illinois
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Illinois
монгол: Иллиной
Dorerin Naoero: Illinois
Nederlands: Illinois (staat)
Nedersaksies: Illinois (stoat)
नेपाली: इलिनोइ
नेपाल भाषा: इलिनोइ
日本語: イリノイ州
нохчийн: Иллинойс
Nordfriisk: Illinois
norsk: Illinois
norsk nynorsk: Illinois
Novial: Illinois
occitan: Illinois
олык марий: Иллинойс
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Illinoys
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਲੀਨਾਏ
पालि: इलिनोइ
Pangasinan: Illinois
پنجابی: الینوۓ
Papiamentu: Illinois
Piemontèis: Illinois
Plattdüütsch: Illinois
polski: Illinois
português: Illinois
română: Illinois
rumantsch: Illinois
Runa Simi: Illinois suyu
русский: Иллинойс
саха тыла: Иллинойс
संस्कृतम्: इलेनॉइस्
sardu: Illinois
Scots: Illinois
Seeltersk: Illinois
shqip: Illinois
sicilianu: Illinois
සිංහල: ඉලනෝයි
Simple English: Illinois
slovenčina: Illinois
slovenščina: Illinois
ślůnski: Illinois
Soomaaliga: Illinois
کوردی: ئیلینۆی
српски / srpski: Илиноис
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Illinois
suomi: Illinois
svenska: Illinois
Tagalog: Illinois
தமிழ்: இலினொய்
Taqbaylit: Illinois
татарча/tatarça: Иллинойс (штат)
тоҷикӣ: Иллинойс
Türkçe: Illinois
українська: Іллінойс
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Illinoyiz Shitati
vèneto: Illinois
Tiếng Việt: Illinois
Volapük: Illinois
walon: Ilinwès
文言: 伊利諾州
Winaray: Illinois
ייִדיש: אילינוי
Yorùbá: Illinois
粵語: 伊利諾州
Zazaki: Illinois
žemaitėška: Ėlėnuojos