Ibn Saud

Abdulaziz 'Ibn Saud'
Ibn Saud.png
King Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman, founder of Saudi Arabia
King of Saudi Arabia
Reign23 September 1932 – 9 November 1953
Bay'ah23 September 1932
PredecessorHimself as King of Nejd and Hejaz
King of Nejd and Hejaz
Reign8 January 1926 – 23 September 1932
PredecessorAli (as King of Hejaz)
Himself (as Sultan of Nejd)
SuccessorHimself as King of Saudi Arabia
Sultan of Nejd
Reign3 November 1921 – 29 January 1927
PredecessorHimself as Emir of Nejd and Hasa
SuccessorHimself as King of Nejd
Emir of Nejd and Hasa
Reign13 January 1902 – 3 November 1921
PredecessorMuḥammad bin Ṭalāl (as Emir of Jabal Shammar)
SuccessorHimself as Sultan of Nejd
Born(1875-01-15)15 January 1875
Riyadh, Emirate of Nejd
Died9 November 1953(1953-11-09) (aged 78)
Taif, Saudi Arabia
BurialAl Oud cemetery, Riyadh
(among others)
Full name
Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud
Regnal name
عبدالعزيزالم آل سعود
HouseHouse of Saud
FatherAbdul Rahman bin Faisal
MotherSarah Al Sudairi
ReligionWahhabi Hanbali Sunni Islam

Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud (Arabic: عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود‎, Abd al-'Azīz ibn 'Abd ar-Raḥman Āl Sa'ūd; 15 January 1875[1] – 9 November 1953), usually known within the Arab world as Abdulaziz[2] and in the West as Ibn Saud,[3] was the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state".[4]

He reconquered his family's ancestral home city of Riyadh in 1902, starting three decades of conquests that made him the ruler of nearly all of central Arabia. He consolidated his control over the Najd in 1922, then conquered the Hejaz in 1925. He extended his dominions into what later became the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. As King, he presided over the discovery of petroleum in Saudi Arabia in 1938 and the beginning of large-scale oil production after World War II. He fathered many children, including 45 sons,[5] and all of the subsequent kings of Saudi Arabia.

Early life and family origins

Ibn Saud was born on 15 January 1875 in Riyadh in the region of Najd in central Arabia.[6][7] He was the son of Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, last ruler of the Emirate of Nejd, the "Second Saudi State", a tribal sheikhdom centered on Riyadh. His family, the House of Saud, had been a power in central Arabia for the previous 130 years. Under the influence and inspiration of Wahhabi Islam, the Saudis had previously attempted to control much of the Arabian peninsula in the form of the Emirate of Diriyah, the "First Saudi State", until its destruction by an Ottoman army in the Ottoman–Wahhabi War in the early nineteenth century.[8] Ibn Saud's mother was a member of the Sudairi family,[9] Sarah Al Sudairi.[10] She died in 1910.[11]

In 1890, the House of Saud's long-term regional rivals, the Rashidis, conquered Riyadh. Ibn Saud was 15 at the time.[12] He and his family initially took refuge with the Al Murrah, a Bedouin tribe in the southern desert of Arabia. Later, the Al Sauds moved to Qatar and stayed there for two months.[13] Their next stop was Bahrain, where they stayed briefly. Their final destination was Kuwait, where they lived for nearly a decade.[13]

In the spring of 1901, Ibn Saud and some relatives, including a half-brother, Mohammad, and several cousins, set out on a raiding expedition into the Najd, targeting for the most part tribes associated with the Rashidis. As the raid proved profitable, it attracted more participants. The raiders' numbers peaked at over 200, but numbers dwindled over the ensuing months.[citation needed]

In the autumn, the group made camp in the Yabrin oasis. While observing Ramadan, he decided to attack Riyadh and retake it from the Al Rashid. On the night of 15 January 1902, he led 40 men over the walls of the city on tilted palm trees and took the city.[14] The Rashidi governor of the city, Ajlan, was killed in front of his own fortress. The Saudi recapture of the city marked the beginning of the Third Saudi State.

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Ibn Saud
Bikol Central: Hadeng Abdul-Aziz
hrvatski: Ibn Saud
Bahasa Indonesia: Abdul Aziz bin Saud
íslenska: Ibn Saud
עברית: אבן סעוד
Basa Jawa: Ibnu Saud
ქართული: იბნ საუდი
latviešu: Ibn Saūds
Lëtzebuergesch: Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud
lietuvių: Ibn Saudas
മലയാളം: ഇബ്ൻ സൗദ്
Bahasa Melayu: Abdul Aziz Al Sa'ud
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Abdulaziz ibn Abdurahmon as-Saud
português: Ibn Saud
Scots: Ibn Saud
Simple English: Ibn Saud
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ibn Saud
svenska: Ibn Saud
Tagalog: Ibn Saud
Tiếng Việt: Ibn Saud