Hypatia

  • hypatia
    bornc. 350–370 ad
    alexandria, province of egypt, eastern roman empire
    diedmarch 415 ad (aged 44–65)[1]
    alexandria, province of egypt, eastern roman empire
    eraancient philosophy
    regionwestern philosophy
    schoolneoplatonism
    main interests
    • mathematics
    • astronomy

    hypatia[a] (born c. 350–370; died 415)[1][5] was a hellenistic neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, who lived in alexandria, egypt, then part of the eastern roman empire. she was a prominent thinker of the neoplatonic school in alexandria where she taught philosophy and astronomy.[6] she is the first female mathematician whose life is reasonably well recorded.[7] hypatia was renowned in her own lifetime as a great teacher and a wise counselor. she is known to have written a commentary on diophantus's thirteen-volume arithmetica, which may survive in part, having been interpolated into diophantus's original text, and another commentary on apollonius of perga's treatise on conic sections, which has not survived. many modern scholars also believe that hypatia may have edited the surviving text of ptolemy's almagest, based on the title of her father theon's commentary on book iii of the almagest.

    hypatia is known to have constructed astrolabes and hydrometers, but did not invent either of these, which were both in use long before she was born. although she herself was a pagan, she was tolerant towards christians and taught many christian students, including synesius, the future bishop of ptolemais. ancient sources record that hypatia was widely beloved by pagans and christians alike and that she established great influence with the political elite in alexandria. towards the end of her life, hypatia advised orestes, the roman prefect of alexandria, who was in the midst of a political feud with cyril, the bishop of alexandria. rumors spread accusing her of preventing orestes from reconciling with cyril and, in march 415 ad, she was murdered by a mob of christians led by a lector named peter.[8][9]

    hypatia's murder shocked the empire and transformed her into a "martyr for philosophy", leading future neoplatonists such as damascius to become increasingly fervent in their opposition to christianity. during the middle ages, hypatia was co-opted as a symbol of christian virtue and scholars believe she was part of the basis for the legend of saint catherine of alexandria. during the age of enlightenment, she became a symbol of opposition to catholicism. in the nineteenth century, european literature, especially charles kingsley's 1853 novel hypatia, romanticized her as "the last of the hellenes". in the twentieth century, hypatia became seen as an icon for women's rights and a precursor to the feminist movement. since the late twentieth century, some portrayals have associated hypatia's death with the destruction of the library of alexandria, despite the historical fact that the library no longer existed during hypatia's lifetime.[10]

  • life
  • death
  • works
  • legacy
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Hypatia
Bornc. 350–370 AD
DiedMarch 415 AD (aged 44–65)[1]
Alexandria, Province of Egypt, Eastern Roman Empire
EraAncient philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolNeoplatonism
Main interests

Hypatia[a] (born c. 350–370; died 415)[1][5] was a Hellenistic Neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, then part of the Eastern Roman Empire. She was a prominent thinker of the Neoplatonic school in Alexandria where she taught philosophy and astronomy.[6] She is the first female mathematician whose life is reasonably well recorded.[7] Hypatia was renowned in her own lifetime as a great teacher and a wise counselor. She is known to have written a commentary on Diophantus's thirteen-volume Arithmetica, which may survive in part, having been interpolated into Diophantus's original text, and another commentary on Apollonius of Perga's treatise on conic sections, which has not survived. Many modern scholars also believe that Hypatia may have edited the surviving text of Ptolemy's Almagest, based on the title of her father Theon's commentary on Book III of the Almagest.

Hypatia is known to have constructed astrolabes and hydrometers, but did not invent either of these, which were both in use long before she was born. Although she herself was a pagan, she was tolerant towards Christians and taught many Christian students, including Synesius, the future bishop of Ptolemais. Ancient sources record that Hypatia was widely beloved by pagans and Christians alike and that she established great influence with the political elite in Alexandria. Towards the end of her life, Hypatia advised Orestes, the Roman prefect of Alexandria, who was in the midst of a political feud with Cyril, the bishop of Alexandria. Rumors spread accusing her of preventing Orestes from reconciling with Cyril and, in March 415 AD, she was murdered by a mob of Christians led by a lector named Peter.[8][9]

Hypatia's murder shocked the empire and transformed her into a "martyr for philosophy", leading future Neoplatonists such as Damascius to become increasingly fervent in their opposition to Christianity. During the Middle Ages, Hypatia was co-opted as a symbol of Christian virtue and scholars believe she was part of the basis for the legend of Saint Catherine of Alexandria. During the Age of Enlightenment, she became a symbol of opposition to Catholicism. In the nineteenth century, European literature, especially Charles Kingsley's 1853 novel Hypatia, romanticized her as "the last of the Hellenes". In the twentieth century, Hypatia became seen as an icon for women's rights and a precursor to the feminist movement. Since the late twentieth century, some portrayals have associated Hypatia's death with the destruction of the Library of Alexandria, despite the historical fact that the library no longer existed during Hypatia's lifetime.[10]

Other Languages
العربية: هيباتيا
asturianu: Hipatia
azərbaycanca: Hipatia
Bân-lâm-gú: Hypatia
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гіпатыя Александрыйская
Bikol Central: Hypatia
български: Хипатия
brezhoneg: Hipatia
català: Hipàtia
Чӑвашла: Гипати
Cymraeg: Hypatia
Deutsch: Hypatia
eesti: Hypatia
Ελληνικά: Υπατία
español: Hipatia
Esperanto: Hipatia
فارسی: هیپاتیا
français: Hypatie
Frysk: Hypatia
Gaeilge: Hypatia
galego: Hipatia
한국어: 히파티아
հայերեն: Հիպատիա
हिन्दी: हाईपेशिया
hrvatski: Hipatija
Bahasa Indonesia: Hipatia
íslenska: Hýpatía
italiano: Ipazia
עברית: היפאטיה
ქართული: ჰიპატია
қазақша: Гипатия
kurdî: Hîpatiya
Кыргызча: Гипатия
Latina: Hypatia
latviešu: Hipātija
lietuvių: Hipatija
македонски: Хипатија
Malagasy: Hypatie
മലയാളം: ഹൈപ്പേഷിയ
مصرى: هيباتيا
Mirandés: Hipátia
Nederlands: Hypatia
norsk: Hypatia
norsk nynorsk: Hypatia av Alexandria
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gipatiya
پنجابی: ہائیپیشیا
português: Hipátia
русский: Гипатия
Scots: Hypatia
sicilianu: Ipàzzia
Simple English: Hypatia
slovenčina: Hypatia
slovenščina: Hipatija
کوردی: ھیپاتیا
српски / srpski: Хипатија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hipatija
svenska: Hypatia
Türkçe: Hypatia
українська: Гіпатія
Tiếng Việt: Hypatia
Winaray: Hypatia
中文: 希帕提婭