Husayn ibn Ali

Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib

Third Imam of Shia Islam
Abu Abd Allah
Shabbir
AlhossainSVG.svg
Calligraphic representation of Husayn's name
Native name
ٱلْحُسَيْن ٱبْن عَلِي ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب
Born10 January 626
(3 Sha'aban AH 4)[1]
Died10 October 680(680-10-10) (aged 55)
(10 Muharram AH 61)
Cause of deathBeheaded at the Battle of Karbala
Resting placeImam Husayn Shrine, Karbala Governorate, Iraq
32°36′59″N 44°1′56.29″E / 32°36′59″N 44°1′56.29″E / 32.61639; 44.0323028
MonumentsIraq, Syria, Egypt
ResidenceMedinah, Hejaz
Known forBeing a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
The Battle of Karbala
Imam
Title
Term670–680 CE
Predecessor(As Shia Imam) Hasan ibn Ali
Successor(As Shia Imam) Ali Zayn al-Abidin
Opponent(s)Yazid ibn Muawiyah
Spouse(s)Shahrbanu
Umme Rubāb
Umme Laylā
Children'Alī Zayn al-'Ābidīn, Sakīnah (Mother: Shahrbanu)
'Alī al-Akbar, Fāṭimah aṣ-Ṣughrá (Mother: Laylā)
Sukaynah and,
'Alī al-Aṣghar(Mother: Rubāb)[7]
Parents
RelativesFamily tree of Husayn ibn Ali

Al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: ٱلْحُسَيْن ٱبْن عَلِي ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب‎, romanizedal-Ḥusayn ʾibn ʿAlī ʾibn ʾAbī Ṭālib‎; 10 January 626 – 10 October 680) was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rightly Guided Caliph of Sunni Islam) and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam as he was a member of the Household of Muhammad (Ahl al-Bayt) and the People of the Cloak (Ahl al-Kisā'), as well as the third Shia Imam.

Prior to his death, the Umayyad ruler Mu'awiya appointed his son Yazid as his successor, contrary to the Hasan-Muawiya treaty.[8] When Muawiya died in 680 CE, Yazid demanded that Husayn pledge allegiance to him. Husayn refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid, even though it meant sacrificing his life. As a consequence, he left Medina, his hometown, to take refuge in Mecca in AH 60.[8][9] There, the people of Kufa sent letters to him, asking his help and pledging their allegiance to him. So he traveled towards Kufa,[8] but near Karbala his caravan was intercepted by Yazid's army. He was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 (10 Muharram 61 AH) by Yazid, along with most of his family and companions, including Husayn's six month old son, Ali al-Asghar, with the women and children taken as prisoners.[8][10] Anger at Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad caliphate's legitimacy, and ultimately its overthrow by the Abbasid Revolution.[11][12]

The annual commemoration of Husayn and his children, family and companions occurs during Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar, and the day he was martyred is known as Ashura (the tenth day of Muharram, a day of mourning for Shi'i Muslims). Husayn's actions at Karbala fueled later Shi'a movements,[12] and his death was decisive in shaping Islamic and Shi'a history. The timing of Husayn's life and death were crucial as they were in one of the most challenging periods of the seventh century. During this time, Umayyad oppression was rampant, and the stand that Husayn and his followers took became a symbol of resistance inspiring future uprisings against oppressors and injustice. Throughout history, many notable personalities, such as Nelson Mandela and Mahatma Gandhi, have cited Husayn's stand against oppression as an example for their own fights against injustice.[13]

Family

Ḥusayn ibn 'Alī

Shiism: Imam; Proof of God, The Martyr of Martyrs, Master of the Martyrs
All Islam: Ahl al-Bayt, Ṣaḥābī, Martyr;[citation needed] Master of the Youths of Paradise[14]
Venerated inAll Islam (Salafis honour rather than venerate him).
Major shrineImam Husayn Shrine, Karbala, Iraq

Husayn's maternal grandmother was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, and his paternal grandparents were Abu Talib and Fatimah bint Asad. Hasan and Husayn were regarded by Muhammad as his own sons due to his love for them and as they were the sons of his daughter Fatima. He said "Every mother's children are associated with their father except for the children of Fatimah for I am their father and lineage." Thus, the descendants of Fatimah are the descendants of Muhammad, and are part of his family.[15][16]

Husayn had several children:

Other Languages
العربية: الحسين بن علي
asturianu: Husáin ibn Ali
azərbaycanca: Hüseyn ibn Əli
башҡортса: Хөсәйен ибн Ғәли
български: Хусейн ибн Али
bosanski: Husejn ibn Ali
čeština: Husajn ibn Alí
español: Husáin ibn Ali
Esperanto: Ĥusejn ibn Ali
Bahasa Indonesia: Husain bin Ali
Kinyarwanda: Imamu Huseni
Kiswahili: Hussein ibn Ali
latviešu: Huseins Ibn Alī
lietuvių: Huseinas ibn Ali
Lingua Franca Nova: Husain ibn Ali
مازِرونی: حسین بن علی
Bahasa Melayu: Husain bin Ali
Nederlands: Hoessein (imam)
norsk nynorsk: Husayn ibn Ali
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Husayn ibn Ali
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹੁਸੈਨ
پنجابی: حسین
português: Huceine ibne Ali
română: Husayn
Simple English: Husayn ibn Ali
српски / srpski: Хусеин ибн Али
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Husein ibn Ali
Türkçe: Hüseyin
українська: Хусейн ібн Алі
Tiếng Việt: Hussein ibn Ali
粵語: 侯賽因
Zazaki: Usên