Hungarian language

Hungarian
magyar nyelv
Pronunciation[ˈmɒɟɒr]
Native toHungary and areas of east Austria, Croatia, Poland, Romania, northern Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, western Ukraine.
EthnicityHungarians
Native speakers
13 million (2002–2012)[1]
Uralic
Latin (Hungarian alphabet)
Hungarian Braille
Old Hungarian script
Official status
Official language in
 Hungary
 Vojvodina
 European Union
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byResearch Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Language codes
ISO 639-1hu
ISO 639-2hun
ISO 639-3Either:
hun – Modern Hungarian
ohu – Old Hungarian
ohu Old Hungarian
Glottologhung1274[2]
Linguasphere41-BAA-a
Idioma húngaro.PNG
Regions of Central Europe where those whose native language is Hungarian represent a majority (dark blue) and a minority (light blue). Based on recent censuses and on the CIA World Factbook 2014[3]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Hungarian (About this sound magyar nyelv ) is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States and Canada). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

Classification

Hungarian is a member of the Uralic language family. Linguistic connections between Hungarian and other Uralic languages were noticed in the 1670s, and the family itself (then called Finno-Ugric) was established in 1717, but the classification of Hungarian as a Uralic/Finno-Ugric rather than Turkic language continued to be a matter of impassioned political controversy throughout the 18th and into the 19th centuries. Hungarian has traditionally been assigned to an Ugric branch within Uralic/Finno-Ugric, along with the Mansi and Khanty languages of western Siberia (Khanty–Mansia region), but it is no longer clear that it is a valid group. When the Samoyed languages were determined to be part of the family, it was thought at first that Finnic and Ugric (Finno-Ugric) were closer to each other than to the Samoyed branch of the family, but that now is frequently questioned.[4][5]

The name of Hungary could be a result of regular sound changes of Ungrian/Ugrian, and the fact that the Eastern Slavs referred to Hungarians as Ǫgry/Ǫgrove (sg. Ǫgrinŭ) seemed to confirm that.[6] Current literature favors the hypothesis that it comes from the name of the Turkic tribe Onogur (which means "ten arrows" or "ten tribes").[7][8][9]

There are numerous regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and the other Ugric languages. For example, Hungarian /aː/ corresponds to Khanty /o/ in certain positions, and Hungarian /h/ corresponds to Khanty /x/, while Hungarian final /z/ corresponds to Khanty final /t/. For example, Hungarian ház [haːz] "house" vs. Khanty xot [xot] "house", and Hungarian száz [saːz] "hundred" vs. Khanty sot [sot] "hundred". The distance between the Ugric and Finnic languages is greater, but the correspondences are also regular.

Early classification

During the latter half of the 19th century, a competing hypothesis proposed a Turkic affinity of Hungarian. Following an academic debate known as Az ugor-török háború ("the Ugric-Turkic battle"), the Finno-Ugric hypothesis was concluded the sounder of the two, foremost based on work by the German linguist Josef Budenz (de).[10]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Hongaars
Alemannisch: Ungarische Sprache
አማርኛ: ሀንጋርኛ
العربية: لغة مجرية
aragonés: Idioma hongaro
asturianu: Idioma húngaru
azərbaycanca: Macar dili
تۆرکجه: مجار دیلی
Bân-lâm-gú: Hông-gâ-lī-gí
башҡортса: Венгр теле
беларуская: Венгерская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вугорская мова
български: Унгарски език
Boarisch: Ungarisch
bosanski: Mađarski jezik
brezhoneg: Hungareg
буряад: Унгар хэлэн
català: Hongarès
Чӑвашла: Венгр чĕлхи
čeština: Maďarština
Cymraeg: Hwngareg
davvisámegiella: Ungáragiella
dolnoserbski: Hungoršćina
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Ungherais
español: Idioma húngaro
Esperanto: Hungara lingvo
euskara: Hungariera
Fiji Hindi: Hungarian bhasa
føroyskt: Ungarskt mál
français: Hongrois
Frysk: Hongaarsk
Gaeilge: An Ungáiris
Gaelg: Ungaarish
Gàidhlig: Ungairis
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hiûng-ngà-li-ngî
한국어: 헝가리어
Հայերեն: Հունգարերեն
hornjoserbsce: Madźaršćina
hrvatski: Mađarski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Hongaria
interlingua: Lingua hungare
íslenska: Ungverska
עברית: הונגרית
Basa Jawa: Basa Hongaria
ქართული: უნგრული ენა
қазақша: Мажар тілі
kernowek: Hungarek
Kinyarwanda: Igihongiriya
Kiswahili: Kihungaria
Кыргызча: Венгр тили
لۊری شومالی: زون مجاری
latviešu: Ungāru valoda
lietuvių: Vengrų kalba
Limburgs: Hongaars
Livvinkarjala: Ungarin kieli
magyar: Magyar nyelv
македонски: Унгарски јазик
მარგალური: უნგრული ნინა
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Hungary
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hṳ̆ng-ngà-lé-ngṳ̄
Nederlands: Hongaars
नेपाल भाषा: हङ्गेरियन भाषा
norsk: Ungarsk
norsk nynorsk: Ungarsk
occitan: Ongrés
олык марий: Венгр йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Venger tili
پنجابی: میگیار بولی
Перем Коми: Мадьяр кыв
Piemontèis: Lenga ungherèisa
Tok Pisin: Tok Hangari
português: Língua húngara
Qaraqalpaqsha: Venger tili
qırımtatarca: Macar tili
română: Limba maghiară
rumantsch: Lingua ungaraisa
Runa Simi: Unriya simi
русиньскый: Мадярскый язык
Gagana Samoa: Fa'aHanikeri
Seeltersk: Ungarisk
sicilianu: Lingua ungarisa
Simple English: Hungarian language
slovenčina: Maďarčina
slovenščina: Madžarščina
ślůnski: Madźarsko godka
српски / srpski: Мађарски језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mađarski jezik
svenska: Ungerska
Taqbaylit: Tahungarit
татарча/tatarça: Маҗар теле
Türkçe: Macarca
удмурт: Венгер кыл
українська: Угорська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ماجار تىلى
vepsän kel’: Mad'jaran kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Hungary
Winaray: Hungaro
ייִדיש: אונגעריש
粵語: 匈牙利文
Zazaki: Macarki
žemaitėška: Vingru kalba
中文: 匈牙利语
Lingua Franca Nova: Magiar (lingua)