Public service and honours
In 1891 he became Physician at St George's Hospital, Hyde Park Corner, London and continued there until 1919. This period, however, was interrupted by his service during the Second Boer War, where he served with the Imperial Yeomanry Hospital, Pretoria. In World War I he was consulting surgeon and surgeon rear-admiral with the Royal Navy. He remained active on consultative board for the Navy for many years thereafter.
Rolleston gave the 1895 Goulstonian Lectures on the subject of On the suprarenal bodies, the 1919 Lumleian Lectures on cerebro-spinal fever and the 1928 Harveian Oration on Cardio-Vascular Diseases Since Harvey's Discovery.
Rolleston was President of the London Medical Society in 1904, the Royal Society of Medicine between 1918 and 1920 and of the Royal College of Physicians between 1922 and 1925. He chaired the Rolleston Committee formed in 1924.
From 1923 to 1932 he was Physician-in-Ordinary to King George V. He was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1918, created a baronet, of Upper Brook Street in the parish of Saint George, Hanover Square, in the County of London, in June 1925 and made a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) in 1929.
In 1925, on the death of Thomas Clifford Allbutt, the Regius Professor of Physic (Cambridge), Rolleston was appointed as his successor, but under a newly imposed age-limit he retired from that position in 1932. He became President of the Medical Society of London in 1926.
On his death in 1944, aged 82, Rolleston's baronetcy became extinct.