Howard University

Howard University
Howard University seal.svg
Former names
Howard Normal and Theological School for the Education of Teachers and Preachers
MottoVeritas et Utilitas
Motto in English
"Truth and Service"
TypePrivate, HBCU
EstablishedMarch 2, 1867 (1867-03-02)
Academic affiliations
TMCF
NAICU
ORAU
AASCU
CUWMA
Endowment$685.8 million (2016)[1]
PresidentWayne A.I. Frederick
ProvostAnthony Wutoh
Students10,300[2]
LocationWashington, D.C., U.S.
38°55′20″N 77°01′10″W / 38°55′20″N 77°01′10″W / 38.92222; -77.01944
CampusUrban; 300 acres (1.2 km2)
NewspaperThe Hilltop
ColorsBlue, White and Red[3]
              
NicknameBison & Lady Bison
Sporting affiliations
NCAA Division IMEAC
Websitewww2.howard.edu
Howard University logo.svg

Howard University (HU or simply Howard) is a federally chartered, private, coeducational, nonsectarian, historically black university (HBCU) in Washington, D.C. It is recognized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with high research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.

From its outset Howard has been nonsectarian and open to people of all genders and races. Howard offers more than 120 areas leading to undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees.

Howard is classified as a Tier 1 national university and ranks second among HBCUs by U.S. News & World Report.[4] Howard is the only HBCU ranked in the top 75 on the 2015 Bloomberg Businessweek college rankings.[5] The Princeton Review ranked the school of business first in opportunities for minority students and in the top five for most competitive students.[5] The National Law Journal ranked the law school among the top 25 in the nation for placing graduates at the most successful law firms.[6] Howard has produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017.[7] Between 1998 and 2009, Howard University produced a Marshall Scholar, two Truman Scholars, twenty-two Fulbright Scholars and ten Pickering Fellows.[8][9] In 2011, the Huffington Post named Howard the second best-dressed college in the nation.[10] Howard is the most comprehensive HBCU in the nation and produces the most black doctorate recipients of any non-profit university.[11][12]

History

Main Hall (right) and Miner Hall in 1868.

Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, members of The First Congregational Society of Washington considered establishing a theological seminary for the education of African-American clergymen. Within a few weeks, the project expanded to include a provision for establishing a university. Within two years, the University consisted of the Colleges of Liberal Arts and Medicine. The new institution was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, a Civil War hero, who was both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard later served as President of the University from 1869–74.[13]

U.S. Congress chartered Howard on March 2, 1867, and much of its early funding came from endowment, private benefaction, and tuition. An annual congressional appropriation administered by the U.S. Department of Education funds Howard University and Howard University Hospital.[14]

Many improvements were made on campus. Howard Hall was renovated and made a dormitory for women. J. Stanley Durkee, Howard's last white president, was appointed in 1918.[15]

The Great Depression years of the 1930s brought hardship to campus. Despite appeals from Eleanor Roosevelt, Howard saw its budget cut below Hoover administration levels during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.[16]

Howard University has played an important role in American history and the Civil Rights Movement on a number of occasions. Alain Locke, Chair of the Department of Philosophy and first African American Rhodes Scholar, authored The New Negro, which helped to usher in the Harlem Renaissance.[17] Ralph Bunche, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner of African descent, served as chair of the Department of Political Science.[18] Beginning in 1942, Howard University students pioneered the "stool-sitting" technique, which was to play a prominent role in the later civil rights movement. By January 1943, students had begun to organize regular sit-ins and pickets at cigar stores and cafeterias around Washington, D.C. which refused to serve them because of their race. These protests continued until the administration asked the students to stop in the Fall of 1944.[19] Stokely Carmichael, also known as Kwame Toure, a student in the Department of Philosophy and the Howard University School of Divinity coined the term "Black Power" and worked in Lowndes County, Alabama as a voting rights activist.[20] Historian Rayford Logan served as chair of the Department of History.[21] E. Franklin Frazier served as chair of the Department of Sociology.[22] Sterling Allen Brown served as chair of the Department of English.

Presidents of Howard University
1867 Charles B. Boynton
1867–1869 Byron Sunderland
1869–1874 Oliver Otis Howard
1875–1876 Edward P. Smith
1877–1889 William W. Patton
1890–1903 Jeremiah Rankin
1903–1906 John Gordon
1906–1912 Wilbur P. Thirkield
1912–1918 Stephen M. Newman
1918–1926 J. Stanley Durkee
1926–1960 Mordecai Wyatt Johnson
1960–1969 James Nabrit Jr.
1969–1989 James E. Cheek
1990–1994 Franklyn Jenifer
1995–2008 H. Patrick Swygert
2008–2013 Sidney A. Ribeau
2013–present Wayne A.I. Frederick

The first sitting president to speak at Howard was Calvin Coolidge in 1924. His graduation speech was entitled, "The Progress of a People," and highlighted the accomplishments to date of the blacks in America since the Civil War. His concluding thought was, "We can not go out from this place and occasion without refreshment of faith and renewal of confidence that in every exigency our Negro fellow citizens will render the best and fullest measure of service whereof they are capable."[23]

The Lower Quadrangle behind Founders Library; also known as "The Valley."

In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a speech to the graduating class at Howard, where he outlined his plans for civil rights legislation and endorsed aggressive affirmative action to combat the effects of years of segregation of blacks from the nation's economic opportunities.[24] At the time, the Voting Rights bill was still pending in the House of Representatives.[25]

In 1975 the historic Freedman's Hospital closed after 112 years of use as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital. Howard University Hospital opened that same year and continues to be used as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital with service to the surrounding community.

Recent history

In 1989, Howard gained national attention when students rose up in protest against the appointment of then-Republican National Committee Chairman Lee Atwater as a new member of the university's Board of Trustees. Student activists disrupted Howard's 122nd anniversary celebrations, and eventually occupied the university's Administration building.[26] Within days, both Atwater and Howard's President, James E. Cheek, resigned.

In April 2007, the head of the faculty senate called for the ouster of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, saying that the school was in a state of crisis and it was time to end "an intolerable condition of incompetence and dysfunction at the highest level."[27] This came on the heels of several criticisms of Howard University and its management. The following month, Swygert announced that he would retire in June 2008.[28] The university announced in May 2008 that Sidney Ribeau of Bowling Green State University would succeed Swygert as president.[29] Ribeau appointed a Presidential Commission on Academic Renewal to conduct a year-long self-evaluation that resulted in reducing or closing 20 out of 171 academic programs.[30] For example, they proposed closing the undergraduate philosophy major and African studies major.[30]

Six years later, in 2013, university insiders again alleged that the university was in crisis. In April, the vice chairwoman of the university's board of trustees wrote a letter to her colleagues harshly criticizing the university's president and calling for a vote of no confidence; her letter was subsequently obtained by the media where it drew national headline.[31][32] Two months later, the university's Council of Deans alleged that "fiscal mismanagement is doing irreparable harm," blaming the university's senior vice president for administration, chief financial officer and treasurer and asking for his dismissal.[33] In October, the faculty voted no confidence in the university's Board of Trustees executive committee, two weeks after university president Sidney A. Ribeau announced that he would retire at the end of the year.[34] On October 1, the Board of Trustees named Wayne A.I. Frederick Interim President.[35] In July 2014 Howard's Board of Trustees named Frederick as the school's 17th president.[36]

Other Languages