House of Bourbon

House of Bourbon
Maison capétienne de Bourbon
Royal house
Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg
Arms of the Kingdom of France (1589–1792)
Parent familyHouse of Capet
Country Kingdom of France
EtymologyFrom Bourbonnais province
Founded1272 (1272)
FounderRobert of Clermont
Current headDirect line extinct
Final rulerCharles X
Final headHenri, Count of Chambord
TitlesKing of France and Navarre
DistinctionsOrder of Saint Louis
Estate(s)Palace of Versailles (royal residence)
Tuileries Palace (royal residence)
Dissolution1883 (1883)
Deposition1830 (1830)
Cadet branches

The Capetian House of Bourbon (English: ən/, also UK: n/; French: [buʁbɔ̃]; Spanish: Borbón) is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

The royal Bourbons originated in 1272, when the youngest son of King Louis IX married the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon.[1] The house continued for three centuries as a cadet branch, serving as nobles under the Direct Capetian and Valois kings.

The senior line of the House of Bourbon became extinct in the male line in 1527 with the death of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon. This made the junior Bourbon-Vendome branch the genealogically senior branch of the House of Bourbon. In 1589, at the death of Henry III of France, the House of Valois became extinct in the male line. Under the Salic law, the Head of the House of Bourbon, as the senior representative of the senior-surviving branch of the Capetian dynasty, became King of France as Henry IV.[1] Bourbon monarchs then united to France the small kingdom of Navarre, which Henry's father had acquired by marriage in 1555, ruling both until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was finally overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. A cadet Bourbon branch, the House of Orléans, then ruled for 18 years (1830–1848), until it too was overthrown.

The Princes de Condé were a cadet branch of the Bourbons descended from an uncle of Henry IV, and the Princes de Conti were a cadet line of the Condé branch. Both houses were prominent French noble families well known for their participation in French affairs, even during exile in the French Revolution, until their respective extinctions in 1830 and 1814.

In 1700, at the death of Charles II of Spain, the Spanish Habsburgs became extinct in the male line. Under the will of the childless Charles II, the second grandson of Louis XIV of France was named as his successor, to preclude the union of the thrones of France and Spain. The prince, then Duke of Anjou, became Philip V of Spain.[1] Permanent separation of the French and Spanish thrones was secured when France and Spain ratified Philip's renunciation, for himself and his descendants, of the French throne in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1714, and similar arrangements later kept the Spanish throne separate from those of the Two Sicilies and Parma. The Spanish House of Bourbon (rendered in Spanish as Borbón [boɾˈβon]) has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, and since 1975. Bourbons ruled in Naples from 1734 to 1806 and in Sicily from 1734 to 1816, and in a unified Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1816 to 1860. They also ruled in Parma from 1731 to 1735, 1748–1802 and 1847–1859.

Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg married a cadet of the Parmese line and thus her successors, who have ruled Luxembourg since her abdication in 1964, have also been members of the House of Bourbon. Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, regent for her father, Pedro II of the Empire of Brazil, married a cadet of the Orléans line and thus their descendants, known as the Orléans-Braganza, were in the line of succession to the Brazilian throne and expected to ascend its throne had the monarchy not been abolished by a coup in 1889.

All legitimate, living members of the House of Bourbon, including its cadet branches, are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV through his son Louis XIII of France.

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The castle of Bourbon-l'Archambault

The pre-Capetian House of Bourbon was a noble family, dating at least from the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by the Sire de Bourbon who was a vassal of the King of France. The term House of Bourbon ("Maison de Bourbon") is sometimes used to refer to this first house and the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, the second family to rule the seigneury.

In 1272, Robert, Count of Clermont, sixth and youngest son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon and member of the House of Bourbon-Dampierre.[1] Their son Louis was made Duke of Bourbon in 1327. His descendant, the Constable of France Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the senior Bourbon line when he died in 1527. Because he chose to fight under the banner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and lived in exile from France, his title was discontinued after his death.

The remaining line of Bourbons henceforth descended from James I, Count of La Marche, the younger son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon.[1] With the death of his grandson James II, Count of La Marche in 1438, the senior line of the Count of La Marche became extinct. All future Bourbons would descend from James II's younger brother, Louis, who became the Count of Vendôme through his mother's inheritance.[1] In 1525, at the death of Charles IV, Duke of Alençon, all of the princes of the blood royal were Bourbons; all remaining members of the House of Valois were members of the king's immediate family.

In 1514, Charles, Count of Vendôme had his title raised to Duke of Vendôme. His son Antoine became King of Navarre, on the northern side of the Pyrenees, by marriage in 1555.[1] Two of Antoine's younger brothers were Cardinal Archbishop Charles de Bourbon and the French and Huguenot general Louis de Bourbon, 1st Prince of Condé. Louis' male-line descendants, the Princes de Condé, survived until 1830. Finally, in 1589, the House of Valois died out and Antoine's son Henry III of Navarre became Henry IV of France.[1]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Huis van Bourbon
العربية: آل بوربون
asturianu: Casa de Borbón
azərbaycanca: Burbonlar
Bân-lâm-gú: Bourbon Ông-ka
беларуская: Род Бурбонаў
български: Бурбони
čeština: Bourboni
Deutsch: Haus Bourbon
eesti: Bourbonid
español: Casa de Borbón
Esperanto: Burbonoj
euskara: Borboi etxea
한국어: 부르봉가
հայերեն: Բուրբոններ
hrvatski: Burbonci
Bahasa Indonesia: Wangsa Bourbon
íslenska: Búrbónar
italiano: Borbone
ქართული: ბურბონები
қазақша: Бурбондар
Кыргызча: Бурбондор
latviešu: Burboni
lietuvių: Burbonai
magyar: Bourbon-ház
македонски: Бурбонци
Bahasa Melayu: Wangsa Bourbon
Nederlands: Huis Bourbon
日本語: ブルボン家
norsk nynorsk: Huset Bourbon
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Burbonlar
polski: Burbonowie
português: Casa de Bourbon
română: Casa de Bourbon
Runa Simi: Burbuwnpa wasin
русский: Бурбоны
саха тыла: Бурбон
Simple English: House of Bourbon
slovenčina: Bourbonovci
slovenščina: Bourboni
српски / srpski: Династија Бурбон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bourbon (dinastija)
svenska: Huset Bourbon
tarandíne: Borbóne/Barése
українська: Бурбони
Tiếng Việt: Nhà Bourbon
吴语: 波旁王朝
粵語: 波旁王朝
中文: 波旁王朝