Ho Chi Minh

Hồ Chí Minh
Ho Chi Minh 1946.jpg
Portrait of Hồ Chí Minh, c. 1946
Chairman of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Vietnam
In office
19 February 1951 – 2 September 1969
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Vietnam
In office
1 November 1956 – 10 September 1960
Preceded byTrường Chinh
Succeeded byLê Duẩn
1st President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
In office
2 September 1945 – 2 September 1969
Preceded byPosition established
Bảo Đại (as Emperor)
Succeeded byTôn Đức Thắng
1st Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
In office
2 September 1945 – 20 September 1955
Preceded byPosition established
Trần Trọng Kim (as Prime Minister of the Empire of Vietnam)
Succeeded byPhạm Văn Đồng
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
28 August 1945 – 2 March 1946
Preceded byTrần Văn Chương (Empire of Vietnam)
Succeeded byNguyễn Tường Tam
In office
3 November 1946 – March 1947
Preceded byNguyễn Tường Tam
Succeeded byHoàng Minh Giám
Member of the Politburo
In office
31 March 1935 – 2 September 1969
Personal details
BornNguyễn Sinh Cung
(1890-05-19)19 May 1890
Kim Liên, Nghệ An Province, French Indochina
Died2 September 1969(1969-09-02) (aged 79)
Hanoi, North Vietnam
  • Vietnamese
Political partyFrench Section of the Workers' International
French Communist Party
Communist Party of Vietnam
Spouse(s)Zeng Xueming (Tăng Tuyết Minh)(Allegedly)[1]
RelationsBạch Liên (or Nguyễn Thị Thanh) (Sister)
Nguyễn Sinh Khiêm (or Nguyễn Tất Đạt) (brother)
(Nguyễn Sinh Nhuận) (brother)
ParentsNguyễn Sinh Sắc (father)
Hoàng Thị Loan (mother)
Alma materCommunist University of the Toilers of the East
Vietnamese name
VietnameseHồ Chí Minh
Vietnamese birth name
VietnameseNguyễn Sinh Cung

Hồ Chí Minh (n/;[2] Vietnamese: [hò tɕǐ mīɲ] (About this sound listen), Saigon: [hò tɕǐ mɨ̄n] (About this sound listen); Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung,[3][4][5] also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam. He was also Prime Minister (1945–1955) and President (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 as well as the People's Army of Vietnam and the Việt Cộng during the Vietnam War.

Hồ Chí Minh led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the Communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at the battle of Điện Biên Phủ. He officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems. After the war, Saigon, the former capital of the Republic of Vietnam, was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City.

Any description of Hồ Chí Minh's life before he came to power in Vietnam is necessarily fraught with ambiguity. He is known to have used at least 50 (or 75)[6]:582 and perhaps as many as 200 pseudonyms.[7] His place of birth and date of birth are products of academic consensus since neither is known with certainty. At least four existing official biographies vary on names, dates, places and other hard facts while unofficial vary even more widely.[8]

Early life

Hồ Chí Minh was born and given the name of Nguyễn Sinh Cung (as appeared in a letter from the director of Collège Quốc học, dated 7 August 1908)[3][4][5] in 1890 in the village of Hoàng Trù (the name of the local temple near Làng Sen), his mother's village. Although this is his generally accepted birth year, at various times he used five different birth years: 1890,[9] 1891,[10] 1892,[11] 1894[12] and 1895.[13] From 1895, he grew up in his father Nguyễn Sinh Sắc (Nguyễn Sinh Huy)'s village of Làng Sen, Kim Liên, Nam Đàn, Nghệ An Province. He had three siblings: his sister Bạch Liên (or Nguyễn Thị Thanh), a clerk in the French Army; his brother Nguyễn Sinh Khiêm (or Nguyễn Tất Đạt), a geomancer and traditional herbalist; and another brother (Nguyễn Sinh Nhuận) who died in his infancy. As a young child, Cung studied with his father before more formal classes with a scholar named Vuong Thuc Do. Cung quickly mastered Chinese writing, a prerequisite for any serious study of Confucianism, while honing his colloquial Vietnamese writing.[6]:21 In addition to his studious endeavors, he was fond of adventure and loved to fly kites and go fishing.[6]:21 Following Confucian tradition, his father gave him a new name at the age of 10: Nguyễn Tất Thành ("Nguyễn the Accomplished").

Thành's father was a Confucian scholar and teacher and later an imperial magistrate in the small remote district of Binh Khe (Qui Nhơn). He was demoted for abuse of power after an influential local figure died several days after having received 102 strokes of the cane as punishment for an infraction.[6]:21 Thành's father was eligible to serve in the imperial bureaucracy, but he refused because it meant serving the French.[14] This exposed Thành to rebellion at a young age and seemed to be the norm for the province where Thành came of age. In deference to his father,[clarification needed] Thành received a French education, attended lycée in Huế, the alma mater of his later disciples, Phạm Văn Đồng and Võ Nguyên Giáp and his later enemy, Ngô Đình Diệm.

First sojourn in France

Previously, it was believed that Thành was involved in an anti-slavery (anti-corvée) demonstration of poor peasants in Huế in May 1908, which endangered his student status at Collège Quốc học. However, a document from the Centre des archives d'Outre-mer in France shows that he was admitted to Collège Quốc học on 8 August 1908, which was several months after the anti-corvée demonstration (9–13 April 1908).[4] The exaggeration of revolutionary credentials was common among Vietnamese Communist leaders as shown in Tôn Đức Thắng's falsified participation in the 1919 Black Sea revolt.

Later in life, he would claim the 1908 revolt had been the moment when his revolutionary outlook emerged,[citation needed] but his application to the French Colonial Administrative School in 1911 undermines this version of events. He chose to leave school in order to find a chance to go abroad. Because his father had been dismissed, he no longer had any hope for a governmental scholarship and went southward, taking a position at Dục Thanh school in Phan Thiết for about six months, then traveled to Saigon.[citation needed]

Thành worked as a kitchen helper on a French steamer, the Amirale de Latouche-Tréville while using the alias Văn Ba. The steamer departed on 5 June 1911 and arrived in Marseille, France on 5 July 1911. The ship then left for Le Havre and Dunkirk, returning to Marseille in mid-September. There, he applied for the French Colonial Administrative School, but his application was rejected and he instead decided to begin traveling the world by working on ships and visited many countries from 1911 to 1917.[citation needed]

In the United States

While working as the cook's helper on a ship in 1912, Thành traveled to the United States. From 1912–1913, he may have lived in New York City (Harlem) and Boston, where he claimed to have worked as a baker at the Parker House Hotel. The only evidence that Thành was in the United States is a letter to French colonial administrators dated 15 December 1912 and postmarked New York City (he gave as his address Poste Restante in Le Havre and stated that he was a sailor) [15]:20 and a postcard to Phan Chu Trinh in Paris where he mentioned working at the Parker House Hotel. Inquiries to the Parker House management revealed no records of his ever having worked there.[6]:51 Among a series of menial jobs, he claimed to have worked for a wealthy family in Brooklyn between 1917–1918 and for General Motors as a line manager.[16]:46 It is believed that while in the United States he made contact with Korean nationalists, an experience that developed his political outlook, but Sophie Quinn-Judge admits that this is "in the realm of conjecture".[15]:20

In the United Kingdom

At various points between 1913 and 1919, Thành claimed to have lived in West Ealing and later in Crouch End, Hornsey. He reportedly worked as either a chef or dish washer (reports vary) at the Drayton Court Hotel in West Ealing.[17] It is claimed that he trained as a pastry chef under Auguste Escoffier at the Carlton Hotel in the Haymarket, Westminster, but there is no evidence to support this.[15]:25 [18] However, the wall of New Zealand House, home of the New Zealand High Commission, which now stands on the site of the Carlton Hotel, displays a blue plaque, stating that Hồ Chí Minh worked there in 1913. Thành was also employed as a pastry boy on the Newhaven–Dieppe ferry route in 1913.[19]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Hồ Chí Minh
Alemannisch: Hồ Chí Minh
አማርኛ: ሆ ቺ ሚን
العربية: هو تشي منه
aragonés: Ho Chi Minh
asturianu: Ho Chi Minh
Aymar aru: Ho Chi Minh
azərbaycanca: Xo Şi Min
বাংলা: হো চি মিন
Bân-lâm-gú: Hồ Chí Minh
башҡортса: Хо Ши Мин
беларуская: Ха Шы Мін
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ха Шы Мін
български: Хо Ши Мин
bosanski: Hồ Chí Minh
brezhoneg: Hồ Chí Minh
català: Ho Chi Minh
čeština: Ho Či Min
Cymraeg: Ho Chi Minh
Ελληνικά: Χο Τσι Μιν
español: Hồ Chí Minh
Esperanto: Ho Chi Minh
euskara: Ho Chi Minh
فارسی: هو شی مین
français: Hô Chi Minh
Gaeilge: Ho Chi Minh
galego: Ho Chi Minh
贛語: 胡志明
گیلکی: هۊشي مين
ગુજરાતી: હો ચી મિન્હ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hồ Chí Minh
한국어: 호찌민
Հայերեն: Հո Շի Մին
हिन्दी: हो चि मिन्ह
hornjoserbsce: Ho Chi Minh
hrvatski: Ho Ši Min
Bahasa Indonesia: Ho Chi Minh
íslenska: Ho Chi Minh
italiano: Ho Chi Minh
עברית: הו צ'י מין
Basa Jawa: Ho Chi Minh
ქართული: ხო ში მინი
қазақша: Хо Ши Мин
Ladino: Ho Chi Minh
لۊری شومالی: ھوٙشی مین
latviešu: Ho Ši Mins
Lëtzebuergesch: Hồ Chí Minh
lietuvių: Ho Ši Minas
magyar: Ho Si Minh
Malagasy: Ho Chi Minh
മലയാളം: ഹോ ചി മിൻ
მარგალური: ხო ში მინი
Bahasa Melayu: Ho Chí Minh
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hồ Chí Minh
монгол: Хо Ши Мин
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟိုချီမင်း
Nederlands: Hồ Chí Minh
नेपाल भाषा: हो चि मिन्ह्
norsk nynorsk: Hồ Chí Minh
occitan: Ho Chi Minh
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ho Chi Minh
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹੋ ਚੀ ਮਿਨ੍ਹ
پنجابی: ہو چی منہ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ហូ ជីមិញ
português: Ho Chi Minh
română: Ho Și Min
Runa Simi: Ho Chi Minh
русский: Хо Ши Мин
саха тыла: Хо Ши Мин
संस्कृतम्: हो चि मिन्ह
sicilianu: Ho Chi Minh
Simple English: Ho Chi Minh
slovenčina: Ho Či Min
slovenščina: Ho Ši Minh (politik)
کوردی: ھۆ چی مین
српски / srpski: Хо Ши Мин
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hồ Chí Minh
svenska: Ho Chi Minh
Tagalog: Ho Chi Minh
తెలుగు: హొ చి మిన్
Türkçe: Ho Chi Minh
українська: Хо Ші Мін
Tiếng Việt: Hồ Chí Minh
文言: 胡志明
Winaray: Ho Chi Minh
粵語: 胡志明
中文: 胡志明