## History of mathematics |

the area of study known as the

**history of mathematics**is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into themathematics . before themathematical methods and notation of the past and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. from 3000 bc themodern age states ofmesopotamian ,sumer andakkad , together withassyria andancient egypt began usingebla ,arithmetic andalgebra for purposes of taxation, commerce, trade and also in the field ofgeometry and to formulateastronomy and record time.calendars the most ancient mathematical texts available are from

andmesopotamia –egypt (plimpton 322 c. 1900 bc),babylonian ^{[2]}the(rhind mathematical papyrus c. 2000–1800 bc)egyptian ^{[3]}and the(egyptian c. 1890 bc). all of these texts mention the so-calledmoscow mathematical papyrus and so, by inference, thepythagorean triples , seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.pythagorean theorem the study of mathematics as a "demonstrative discipline" begins in the 6th century bc with the

, who coined the term "mathematics" from the ancientpythagoreans greek *μάθημα*(*mathema*), meaning "subject of instruction".^{[4]} greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning andgreek mathematics inmathematical rigor ) and expanded the subject matter of mathematics.proofs ^{[5]}although they made virtually no contributions to , thetheoretical mathematics usedancient romans inapplied mathematics ,surveying ,structural engineering ,mechanical engineering , creation ofbookkeeping andlunar , and evensolar calendars .arts and crafts made early contributions, including achinese mathematics and the first use ofplace value system .negative numbers ^{[6]}^{[7]}the and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today evolved over the course of the first millennium ad inhindu–arabic numeral system and were transmitted to theindia viawestern world through the work ofislamic mathematics .muḥammad ibn mūsā al-khwārizmī ^{[8]}^{[9]}islamic mathematics, in turn, developed and expanded the mathematics known to these civilizations.^{[10]}contemporaneous with but independent of these traditions were the mathematics developed by the ofmaya civilization andmexico , where the concept ofcentral america was given a standard symbol inzero .maya numerals many greek and arabic texts on mathematics were

from the 12th century onward, leading to further development of mathematics intranslated into latin . from ancient times through themedieval europe , periods of mathematical discovery were often followed by centuries of stagnation. beginning inmiddle ages renaissance in the 15th century, new mathematical developments, interacting with new scientific discoveries, were made at anitaly that continues through the present day. this includes the groundbreaking work of bothincreasing pace andisaac newton in the development of infinitesimalgottfried wilhelm leibniz during the course of the 17th century. at the end of the 19th century thecalculus was founded and continues to spearhead advances in the field.international congress of mathematicians ^{[citation needed]}- prehistoric
- babylonian
- egyptian
- greek
- roman
- chinese
- indian
- islamic empire
- maya
- medieval european
- renaissance
- mathematics during the scientific revolution
- modern
- future
- see also
- notes
- references
- further reading
- external links

The area of study known as the **history of mathematics** is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in

The most ancient mathematical texts available are from * Plimpton 322* (

The study of mathematics as a "demonstrative discipline" begins in the 6th century BC with the *μάθημα* (*mathema*), meaning "subject of instruction".^{[4]} ^{[5]} Although they made virtually no contributions to ^{[6]}^{[7]} The ^{[8]}^{[9]} Islamic mathematics, in turn, developed and expanded the mathematics known to these civilizations.^{[10]} Contemporaneous with but independent of these traditions were the mathematics developed by the

Many Greek and Arabic texts on mathematics were ^{[citation needed]}

Other Languages

አማርኛ: የሒሳብ ታሪክ

العربية: تاريخ الرياضيات

asturianu: Historia de les matemátiques

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български: История на математиката

català: Història de les matemàtiques

čeština: Dějiny matematiky

dansk: Matematikkens historie

Deutsch: Geschichte der Mathematik

Ελληνικά: Ιστορία των μαθηματικών

español: Historia de las matemáticas

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Nederlands: Geschiedenis van de wiskunde

日本語: 数学史

norsk: Matematikkens historie

Novial: Historie de matematike

polski: Historia matematyki

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română: Istoria matematicii

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සිංහල: ගණිතයේ ඉතිහාසය

Simple English: History of mathematics

سنڌي: رياضي جي تاريخ

slovenščina: Zgodovina matematike

کوردی: مێژووی ماتماتیک

српски / srpski: Историја математике

Sunda: Sajarah matematik

suomi: Matematiikan historia

svenska: Matematikens historia

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татарча/tatarça: Математика тарихы

Türkçe: Matematik tarihi

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اردو: تاریخ ریاضی

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中文: 数学史