Hindi

Hindi
हिन्दी
Hindī
Hindi devnagari.png
The word "Hindi" in Devanagari script
PronunciationHindustani pronunciation: [ˈɦin̪d̪iː]
Native toNorthern India (Hindi Belt)
EthnicityHindavi people
Native speakers
260 million (2001)[1]
L2 speakers: 120 million (1999)
Early forms
Devanagari
Devanagari Braille
Signed Hindi
Official status
Official language in
 India
Regulated byCentral Hindi Directorate[3]
Language codes
ISO 639-1hi
ISO 639-2hin
ISO 639-3hin
hin-hin
Glottologhind1269[4]
Linguasphere59-AAF-qf

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and sanskritised register[5] of the Hindustani language. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century.[6] However, modern Hindi's earlier literary stages before standardization can be traced to the 16th century.[7]

Along with the English language, Hindi written in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Government of India.[8] On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India. To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following adoption of Hindi as the official language.[9] It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India.[10] However, it is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution.[11][12]

Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt, and to a lesser extent the whole of India (usually in a simplified or pidginized variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi). Outside India, several other languages are recognized officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects of Hindustani, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri. Such languages include Fiji Hindi, which is official in Fiji, and Caribbean Hindustani, which is a recognized language in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.[13][14][15][16] Apart from specialized vocabulary, Hindi is mutually intelligible with Standard Urdu, another recognized register of Hindustani.

Individually, as a linguistic variety, Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin, Spanish and English.[17] Alongside Urdu as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English.[18]

Etymology

The term Hindī originally was used to refer to inhabitants of the region east of the Indus. It was borrowed from Classical Persian Hindī (Iranian Persian Hendi), meaning "Indian", from the proper noun Hind "India".[19]

The name Hindavī was used by Amir Khusrow in his poetry.[20]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Хиндубзэ
Afrikaans: Hindi
Alemannisch: Hindi
አማርኛ: ህንዲ
Ænglisc: Hindisc sprǣc
العربية: لغة هندية
aragonés: Hindi
অসমীয়া: হিন্দী ভাষা
asturianu: Idioma hindi
Avañe'ẽ: Hindi ñe'ẽ
azərbaycanca: Hind dili
تۆرکجه: هیندی دیل
Bahasa Banjar: Bahasa Hindi
Bân-lâm-gú: Hindi-gí
башҡортса: Һинд теле
беларуская: Хіндзі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гіндзі
भोजपुरी: हिंदी भाषा
Bikol Central: Hindi
Bislama: Hindi
български: Хинди
བོད་ཡིག: རྒྱ་གར་སྐད།
bosanski: Hindski jezik
brezhoneg: Hindeg
català: Hindi
Чӑвашла: Хинди
čeština: Hindština
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Hindi
Cymraeg: Hindi
dansk: Hindi
davvisámegiella: Hindigiella
Deutsch: Hindi
ދިވެހިބަސް: ހިންދީ
dolnoserbski: Hindišćina
eesti: Hindi keel
Ελληνικά: Χίντι
español: Hindi
Esperanto: Hindia lingvo
euskara: Hindi
فارسی: زبان هندی
Fiji Hindi: Hindi
français: Hindi
Frysk: Hindy
Gaeilge: An Hiondúis
Gaelg: Hindish
Gàidhlig: Hindi
galego: Lingua hindi
贛語: 印地語
ગુજરાતી: હિંદી ભાષા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: हिंदी
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hindi-ngî
한국어: 힌디어
Հայերեն: Հինդի
हिन्दी: हिन्दी
hornjoserbsce: Hindišćina
hrvatski: Hindski jezik
Ilokano: Hindi
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: হিন্দী ঠার
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Hindi
Interlingue: Hindi
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐦᐃᓐᑏ
íslenska: Hindí
italiano: Lingua hindi
עברית: הינדית
Basa Jawa: Basa Hindi
kalaallisut: Hindimiutut
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಹಿಂದಿ
ქართული: ჰინდი ენა
қазақша: Хинди
Kiswahili: Kihindi
коми: Хинди
Kongo: Kihindi
لۊری شومالی: زون هئنی
latviešu: Hindi
lietuvių: Hindi
Ligure: Lengua hindi
Limburgs: Hindi
magyar: Hindi nyelv
македонски: Хинди
Malagasy: Fiteny hindi
മലയാളം: ഹിന്ദി
Māori: Reo Hindi
მარგალური: ჰინდი ნინა
مصرى: هندى
مازِرونی: هندی زوون
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Hindi
монгол: Хинди хэл
Nāhuatl: Inditlahtōlli
Nederlands: Hindi
नेपाली: हिन्दी
नेपाल भाषा: हिन्दी भाषा
Napulitano: Hindjan
нохчийн: ХӀинди мотт
Norfuk / Pitkern: Hindi
norsk: Hindi
norsk nynorsk: Hindi
occitan: Indi (lenga)
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ହିନ୍ଦୀ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hind tili
پنجابی: ہندی
پښتو: هندي
Patois: Indii
Piemontèis: Lenga hindi
Plattdüütsch: Hindi
polski: Język hindi
português: Língua hindi
Ripoarisch: Hindi (Sprooch)
română: Limba hindi
Runa Simi: Hindi simi
русиньскый: Гінді
русский: Хинди
саха тыла: Хинди
संस्कृतम्: हिन्दीभाषा
Scots: Hindi
shqip: Hindi
Simple English: Hindi
سنڌي: هندي
slovenčina: Hindčina
slovenščina: Hindijščina
српски / srpski: Хинди (језик)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hindski jezik
suomi: Hindi
svenska: Hindi
Tagalog: Wikang Hindi
தமிழ்: இந்தி
татарча/tatarça: Һинд теле
తెలుగు: హిందీ భాష
Türkçe: Hintçe
українська: Гінді
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ھىندى تىلى
Vahcuengh: Vahyindi
vepsän kel’: Hindi
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Hindi
Volapük: Hindiy
Winaray: Hindi
吴语: 印地語
Yorùbá: Èdè Híndì
粵語: 印地文
Zazaki: Hindki
žemaitėška: Hindi
中文: 印地语
डोटेली: हिन्दी
Kabɩyɛ: Ɛndɩ kʊnʊŋ