Hiberno-English

  • hiberno-english
    irish english
    native toireland
    regionireland (republic of ireland and northern ireland); great britain; united states; australia; canada (diaspora)
    native speakers
    4.3 million in the republic of ireland and the united kingdom (2012 european commission)[1]
    275,000 l2 speakers of english in ireland (european commission 2012)
    language family
    indo-european
    • germanic
      • west germanic
        • anglo-frisian
          • anglic
            • english
              • hiberno-english
    writing system
    latin
    language codes
    iso 639-3none (mis)
    glottolognone
    ietfen-ie
    this article contains ipa phonetic symbols. without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of unicode characters. for an introductory guide on ipa symbols, see help:ipa.

    hiberno-english (from latin hibernia: "ireland") or irish english[2] (ulster scots: erse inglis, irish: béarla Éireannach) is the set of english dialects natively written and spoken within the island of ireland (including both the republic of ireland and northern ireland).[3]

    english was brought to ireland as a result of the norman invasion of ireland of the late 12th century. initially, it was mainly spoken in an area known as the pale around dublin, with mostly irish spoken throughout the rest of the country. by the tudor period, irish culture and language had regained most of the territory lost to the invaders: even in the pale, "all the common folk… for the most part are of irish birth, irish habit, and of irish language".[4] some small pockets remained predominantly english-speaking; because of their sheer isolation their dialects developed into later (now extinct) dialects known as yola in wexford and fingallian in fingal, dublin. these were no longer mutually intelligible with other english varieties.

    however, the tudor conquest and colonisation of ireland in the 16th century led to a second wave of immigration by english-speakers, the suppression and decline of the status of the irish language, and marked a forced decrease in the use of irish. by the mid-19th century, english was the majority language spoken in the country.[a] it has retained this status to the present day, with even those whose first language is irish being fluent in english as well. today, there is only a little more than one per cent of the population that speaks irish natively.[6] of the 40% of the population, who self-identified as speaking some irish in 2016, 4% speak irish daily outside the education system.[7] english is one of two official languages, along with irish, of the republic of ireland, and is the country's de facto working language.

    hiberno-english's spelling and pronunciation standards align with british rather than american english. however, hiberno-english's diverse accents and some of its grammatical structures are unique, with some influence by the irish language and a tendency to be phonologically conservative, retaining older features no longer common in the accents of england or north america.

    phonologists today often divide hiberno-english into four or five overarching classes of dialects or accents:[8][9] ulster accents, west and south-west irish accents (including, for example, the cork accent), various dublin accents, and a supraregional accent expanding since only the last quarter of the twentieth century.

  • ulster english
  • west and south-west irish english
  • dublin english
  • supraregional southern irish english
  • overview of pronunciation and phonology
  • vocabulary
  • grammar and syntax
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • further reading
  • external links

Hiberno-English
Irish English
Native toIreland
RegionIreland (Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland); Great Britain; United States; Australia; Canada (diaspora)
Native speakers
4.3 million in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom (2012 European Commission)[1]
275,000 L2 speakers of English in Ireland (European Commission 2012)
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
GlottologNone
IETFen-IE
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Hiberno-English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English[2] (Ulster Scots: Erse Inglis, Irish: Béarla Éireannach) is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).[3]

English was brought to Ireland as a result of the Norman invasion of Ireland of the late 12th century. Initially, it was mainly spoken in an area known as the Pale around Dublin, with mostly Irish spoken throughout the rest of the country. By the Tudor period, Irish culture and language had regained most of the territory lost to the invaders: even in the Pale, "all the common folk… for the most part are of Irish birth, Irish habit, and of Irish language".[4] Some small pockets remained predominantly English-speaking; because of their sheer isolation their dialects developed into later (now extinct) dialects known as Yola in Wexford and Fingallian in Fingal, Dublin. These were no longer mutually intelligible with other English varieties.

However, the Tudor conquest and colonisation of Ireland in the 16th century led to a second wave of immigration by English-speakers, the suppression and decline of the status of the Irish language, and marked a forced decrease in the use of Irish. By the mid-19th century, English was the majority language spoken in the country.[a] It has retained this status to the present day, with even those whose first language is Irish being fluent in English as well. Today, there is only a little more than one per cent of the population that speaks Irish natively.[6] Of the 40% of the population, who self-identified as speaking some Irish in 2016, 4% speak Irish daily outside the education system.[7] English is one of two official languages, along with Irish, of the Republic of Ireland, and is the country's de facto working language.

Hiberno-English's spelling and pronunciation standards align with British rather than American English. However, Hiberno-English's diverse accents and some of its grammatical structures are unique, with some influence by the Irish language and a tendency to be phonologically conservative, retaining older features no longer common in the accents of England or North America.

Phonologists today often divide Hiberno-English into four or five overarching classes of dialects or accents:[8][9] Ulster accents, West and South-West Irish accents (including, for example, the Cork accent), various Dublin accents, and a supraregional accent expanding since only the last quarter of the twentieth century.