Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster

Henry of Grosmont
Portrait of Henry, Duke of Lancaster - William Bruges's Garter Book (c.1440-1450), f.8 - BL Stowe MS 594 (cropped).jpg
Duc de Lancaster, from the Bruges Garter Book (1430) by William Bruges. The arms on his tabard appear to be erroneous, being the arms first adopted by King Edward III and not his paternal arms of Plantagenet with a label of France for difference, being the arms of their common ancestor King Henry III.
Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Lancaster and Leicester
PredecessorHenry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
SuccessorJohn of Gaunt
Bornc. 1310
Grosmont Castle, Grosmont, Monmouthshire
Died23 March 1361 (aged 50–51)
Leicester Castle, Leicester, Leicestershire
Burial14 April 1361
SpouseIsabel of Beaumont
Issue
HousePlantagenet
FatherHenry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
MotherMaud Chaworth
Military career
Allegiance Kingdom of England
Wars
AwardsKnight of the Garter

Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 4th Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, Earl of Derby KG (c. 1310 – 23 March 1361), of Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, was a member of the English royal family and a prominent English diplomat, politician, and soldier. He was the wealthiest and most powerful peer of the realm. The son and heir of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, and Maud Chaworth, he became one of King Edward III's most trusted captains in the early phases of the Hundred Years' War and distinguished himself with victory in the Battle of Auberoche. He was a founding member and the second Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348,[1] and in 1351 was created Duke of Lancaster. An intelligent and reflective man, Grosmont taught himself to write and was the author of the book Livre de seyntz medicines, a highly personal devotional treatise. He is remembered as one of the founders and early patrons of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, which was established by two guilds of the town in 1352.

Origins

He was the son of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster (c. 1281–1345), younger brother and heir of Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster (c. 1278–1322) ("Thomas of Lancaster"), both sons of Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245–1296), second son of King Henry III (ruled 1216–1272), and younger brother of King Edward I (ruled 1272–1307). Henry of Grossmont was thus a first cousin once removed of King Edward II and a second cousin of King Edward III (ruled 1327–1377). His mother was Maud de Chaworth (1282–1322).

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