thought to show Henry (top) mourning his mother, with his sisters, Mary and Margaret, in the foreground, 1503
Born 28 June 1491 at the
Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Kent, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of
Henry VII and
Elizabeth of York.
 Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three –
Arthur, Prince of Wales;
Mary – survived infancy.
 He was baptised by
Richard Fox, the
Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the
Observant Franciscans close to the palace.
 In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of
Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the
Cinque Ports. He was subsequently appointed
Earl Marshal of England and
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, and was inducted into the
Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created
Duke of York and a month or so later made
Warden of the Scottish Marches. In May 1495, he was appointed to the
Order of the Garter. The reason for all the appointments to a small child was so his father could keep personal control of lucrative positions and not share them with established families.
 Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French, and learning at least some Italian.
 Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king.
 In November 1501, Henry also played a considerable part in the ceremonies surrounding his brother's marriage to
Catherine of Aragon, the youngest surviving child of King
Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen
Isabella I of Castile.
 As Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. He was further honoured, on 9 February 1506, by
Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I who made him a
Knight of the Golden Fleece.
In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of
 just 20 weeks after his marriage to Catherine.
 Arthur's death thrust all his duties upon his younger brother, the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new
Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, and the new
Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in February 1503.
 Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was strictly supervised and did not appear in public. As a result, he ascended the throne "untrained in the exacting art of kingship".
Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Arthur's widow Catherine.
 Both Isabella and Henry VII were keen on the idea, which had arisen very shortly after Arthur's death.
 On 23 June 1503, a treaty was signed for their marriage, and they were betrothed two days later.
 A papal dispensation was only needed for the "impediment of public honesty" if the marriage had not been
consummated as Catherine and her
duenna claimed, but Henry VII and the Spanish ambassador set out instead to obtain a dispensation for "affinity", which took account of the possibility of consummation.
 Cohabitation was not possible because Henry was too young.
 Isabella's death in 1504, and the ensuing problems of succession in
Castile, complicated matters. Her father preferred her to stay in England, but Henry VII's relations with Ferdinand had deteriorated.
 Catherine was therefore left in limbo for some time, culminating in Prince Henry's rejection of the marriage as soon he was able, at the age of 14. Ferdinand's solution was to make his daughter ambassador, allowing her to stay in England indefinitely. Devout, she began to believe that it was God's will that she marry the prince despite his opposition.