Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII
Workshop of Hans Holbein the Younger - Portrait of Henry VIII - Google Art Project.jpg
Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1537-1547
King of England; Lord/King of Ireland ( more...)
Reign 21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547
Coronation 24 June 1509
Predecessor Henry VII
Successor Edward VI
Born 28 June 1491
Greenwich Palace, Greenwich, Kent
Died 28 January 1547 (aged 55)
Palace of Whitehall, London
Burial 1547 [1]
St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Berkshire
Spouse
Issue
Among others
House Tudor
Father Henry VII of England
Mother Elizabeth of York
Religion Anglican
prev. Roman Catholic
Signature Henry VIII's signature

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII.

Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority and appointing himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings. [2]

Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, he greatly expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, and those accused were often executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder. He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, and Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in Henry's administration. He was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert into royal revenue the money that was formerly paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly continental wars, particularly with Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, as he sought to enforce his claim to the Kingdom of France. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 he was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland.

His contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive, educated and accomplished king. He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne". [3] He was an author and composer. As he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king. [4] He was succeeded by his son Edward VI.

Early years

Henry's childhood copy of De Officiis, bearing the inscription in his hand, "Thys boke is myne Prynce Henry"

Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Kent, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. [5] Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales; Margaret; and Mary – survived infancy. [6] He was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. [7] In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. He was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, and was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York and a month or so later made Warden of the Scottish Marches. In May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. The reason for all the appointments to a small child was so his father could keep personal control of lucrative positions and not share them with established families. [7] Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French, and learning at least some Italian. [8] [9] Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king. [7] In November 1501, Henry also played a considerable part in the ceremonies surrounding the marriage of his brother, Prince Arthur, to Catherine of Aragon, the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. [10] As Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. He was further honoured, on 9 February 1506, by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I who made him a Knight of the Golden Fleece. [11]

Detail of illumination in the Vaux Passional thought to depict Henry mourning the loss of his mother (1503). His sisters are also pictured.

In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, [12] just 20 weeks after his marriage to Catherine. [13] Arthur's death thrust all his duties upon his younger brother, the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, and the new Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in February 1503. [14] Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was strictly supervised and did not appear in public. As a result, the young Henry would later ascend the throne "untrained in the exacting art of kingship". [15]

Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Arthur's widow Catherine. [13] Both Isabella and Henry VII were keen on the idea, which had arisen very shortly after Arthur's death. [16] On 23 June 1503, a treaty was signed for their marriage, and they were betrothed two days later. [17] A papal dispensation was only needed for the "impediment of public honesty" if the marriage had not been consummated as Catherine and her duenna claimed, but Henry VII and the Spanish ambassador set out instead to obtain a dispensation for "affinity", which took account of the possibility of consummation. [17] The young Henry's age, only eleven, prevented cohabitation. [16] Isabella's death in 1504, and the ensuing problems of succession in Castile, complicated matters. Her father preferred her to stay in England, but Henry VII's relations with Ferdinand had deteriorated. [18] Catherine was therefore left in limbo for some time, culminating in Prince Henry's rejection of the marriage as soon he was able, at the age of 14. Ferdinand's solution was to make his daughter ambassador, allowing her to stay in England indefinitely. Devout, she began to believe that it was God's will that she marry the prince despite his opposition. [19]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: VIII Henri
Bân-lâm-gú: Henry 8-sè (Eng-lân)
беларуская: Генрых VIII
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Генрых VIII
Bikol Central: Hadeng Enrique VIII
български: Хенри VIII
eesti: Henry VIII
français: Henri VIII
한국어: 헨리 8세
Հայերեն: Հենրի VIII
Bahasa Indonesia: Henry VIII dari Inggris
íslenska: Hinrik 8.
ქართული: ჰენრი VIII
Kiswahili: Henry VIII
Lëtzebuergesch: Henry VIII. vun England
lietuvių: Henrikas VIII
македонски: Хенри VIII
norsk nynorsk: Henrik VIII av England
русский: Генрих VIII
संस्कृतम्: हेनरी ८
Simple English: Henry VIII of England
slovenčina: Henrich VIII.
slovenščina: Henrik VIII. Angleški
српски / srpski: Хенри VIII Тјудор
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Henry VIII od Engleske
Türkçe: VIII. Henry
Tiếng Việt: Henry VIII của Anh
粵語: 亨利八世
中文: 亨利八世