## Henri Poincaré |

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**Jules Henri Poincaré** (^{[2]} French: ^{[3]}^{[4]} 29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French ^{[5]} since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime.

As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to ^{[6]} He was responsible for formulating the

Poincaré made clear the importance of paying attention to the invariance of laws of physics under different transformations, and was the first to present the *ondes gravifiques*) emanating from a body and propagating at the speed of light as being required by the Lorentz transformations.

The

Poincaré was born on 29 April 1854 in Cité Ducale neighborhood, ^{[7]} His father Leon Poincaré (1828–1892) was a professor of medicine at the ^{[8]} His younger sister Aline married the spiritual philosopher ^{[9]} Poincaré was raised in the Roman Catholic faith, but later left the religion. He became a ^{[10]}^{[11]}^{[12]}

During his childhood he was seriously ill for a time with

In 1862, Henri entered the Lycée in ^{[13]} However, poor eyesight and a tendency towards absentmindedness may explain these difficulties.^{[14]} He graduated from the Lycée in 1871 with a bachelor's degree in letters and sciences.

During the

Poincaré entered the *Démonstration nouvelle des propriétés de l'indicatrice d'une surface*) in 1874. From November 1875 to June 1878 he studied at the ^{[15]}

As a graduate of the École des Mines, he joined the

At the same time, Poincaré was preparing for his *Sur les propriétés des fonctions définies par les équations aux différences partielles*. Poincaré devised a new way of studying the properties of these equations. He not only faced the question of determining the integral of such equations, but also was the first person to study their general geometric properties. He realised that they could be used to model the behaviour of multiple bodies in free motion within the

After receiving his degree, Poincaré began teaching as junior lecturer in mathematics at the

There, in Caen, he met his future wife, Louise Poulin d'Andesi (Louise Poulain d'Andecy) and on 20 April 1881, they married. Together they had four children: Jeanne (born 1887), Yvonne (born 1889), Henriette (born 1891), and Léon (born 1893).

Poincaré immediately established himself among the greatest mathematicians of Europe, attracting the attention of many prominent mathematicians. In 1881 Poincaré was invited to take a teaching position at the Faculty of Sciences of the

In 1881–1882, Poincaré created a new branch of mathematics:

He never fully abandoned his mining career to mathematics. He worked at the Ministry of Public Services as an engineer in charge of northern railway development from 1881 to 1885. He eventually became chief engineer of the Corps de Mines in 1893 and inspector general in 1910.

Beginning in 1881 and for the rest of his career, he taught at the University of Paris (the *maître de conférences d'analyse* (associate professor of analysis).^{[16]} Eventually, he held the chairs of Physical and Experimental Mechanics, Mathematical Physics and Theory of Probability, and Celestial Mechanics and Astronomy.

In 1887, at the young age of 32, Poincaré was elected to the

In 1887, he won

In 1893, Poincaré joined the French ^{[17]} It was this post which led him to consider the question of establishing international time zones and the synchronisation of time between bodies in relative motion. (See work on relativity section below.)

In 1899, and again more successfully in 1904, he intervened in the trials of

Poincaré was the President of the ^{[18]}

Poincaré had two notable doctoral students at the University of Paris, ^{[19]}

In 1912, Poincaré underwent surgery for a

A former French Minister of Education, ^{[20]}

Other Languages

адыгабзэ: Анри Пуанкаре

Afrikaans: Henri Poincaré

Alemannisch: Henri Poincaré

العربية: هنري بوانكاريه

asturianu: Henri Poincaré

azərbaycanca: Anri Puankare

تۆرکجه: آنری پوانکاره

বাংলা: অঁরি পোয়াঁকারে

Bân-lâm-gú: Henri Poincaré

беларуская: Анры Пуанкарэ

български: Анри Поанкаре

bosanski: Henri Poincaré

català: Henri Poincaré

čeština: Henri Poincaré

dansk: Henri Poincaré

Deutsch: Henri Poincaré

eesti: Henri Poincaré

Ελληνικά: Ανρί Πουανκαρέ

español: Henri Poincaré

Esperanto: Henri Poincaré

euskara: Henri Poincaré

فارسی: آنری پوانکاره

français: Henri Poincaré

Frysk: Henri Poincaré

Gaeilge: Henri Poincaré

galego: Henri Poincaré

贛語: 般加黑

한국어: 앙리 푸앵카레

հայերեն: Անրի Պուանկարե

हिन्दी: आन्री पांकरे

hrvatski: Henri Poincaré

Ido: Henri Poincaré

Bahasa Indonesia: Henri Poincaré

italiano: Henri Poincaré

עברית: אנרי פואנקרה

Kabɩyɛ: Henri Poincaré

ქართული: ჟიულ ანრი პუანკარე

қазақша: Анри Пуанкаре

Kreyòl ayisyen: Henri Poincaré

Latina: Henricus Poincaré

latviešu: Anrī Puankarē

Lëtzebuergesch: Henri Poincaré

lietuvių: Henri Poincaré

la .lojban.: aris.puakares

magyar: Henri Poincaré

македонски: Анри Поенкаре

Malagasy: Henri Poincaré

Mirandés: Henri Poincaré

မြန်မာဘာသာ: အွန်ရိ ပွန်ကာရေ

Nederlands: Henri Poincaré

日本語: アンリ・ポアンカレ

norsk: Henri Poincaré

norsk nynorsk: Henri Poincaré

occitan: Henri Poincaré

oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Henri Poincaré

ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜੂਲਜ਼ ਅੌਨਰੀ ਪੋੲਿਨਕਰੇ

Patois: Henri Poincaré

Piemontèis: Henri Poincaré

polski: Henri Poincaré

português: Henri Poincaré

română: Henri Poincaré

русский: Пуанкаре, Анри

Scots: Henri Poincaré

shqip: Henri Poincare

Simple English: Henri Poincaré

slovenčina: Henri Poincaré

slovenščina: Henri Poincaré

српски / srpski: Анри Поенкаре

srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Henri Poincaré

suomi: Henri Poincaré

svenska: Henri Poincaré

Tagalog: Henri Poincaré

ไทย: อ็องรี ปวงกาเร

Türkçe: Henri Poincaré

українська: Анрі Пуанкаре

Tiếng Việt: Henri Poincaré

文言: 龐加萊

Winaray: Henri Poincaré

Yorùbá: Henri Poincaré

粵語: 龐加萊

中文: 儒勒·昂利·庞加莱