Help:IPA for English

This page is about the pronunciation of words in English. For sounds not found in English, see Help:IPA. For a basic introduction to the IPA, see Help:IPA/Introduction. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Throughout Wikipedia, the pronunciation of words is indicated by means of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The following tables list the IPA symbols used for English words and pronunciations. Please note that several of these symbols are used in ways that are specific to Wikipedia and differ from those used by dictionaries.

If the IPA symbols are not displayed properly by your browser, see the links below.

If you are adding a pronunciation using this key, such pronunciations should generally be formatted using the template {{ IPAc-en}}. The template provides tooltips for each symbol in the pronunciation. See the template page for instructions.

Key

If the words given as examples for two different symbols sound the same to you (for example, if you pronounce cot and caught the same, or do and dew, or marry and merry), you can pronounce those symbols the same in explanations of all words. The footnotes explain some of these mergers. (See also Dialect variation below.)

If there is an IPA symbol you are looking for that you do not see here, see Help:IPA, which is a more complete list. For a table listing all spellings of the sounds on this page, see English orthography § Sound-to-spelling correspondences. For help converting spelling to pronunciation, see English orthography § Spelling-to-sound correspondences.

Consonants
IPA Examples
b buy, cab
d dye, cad, do
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge, jam
f fan, caff, phi
ɡ (ɡ) [1] guy, bag
h high, ahead
hw why [2]
j [3] yes, hallelujah
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r [4] rye, try, very
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, atom
china, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
z zoo, has
ʒ equation, pleasure, vision, beige [5]
Marginal consonants
x ugh, loch, Chanukah [6]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʔʌʔoʊ/
˜ bon vivant /ˌbɒ̃ viːˈvɒ̃/ [7]
Vowels
IPA Full vowels IPA ... followed by R [8]
ɑː PALM, father, bra ɑːr START, bard, barn, snarl, star
ɒ LOT, pod, John [9] ɒr moral, forage
æ TRAP, pad, ban [10] [11] ær barrow, marry [12]
PRICE, ride, file, fine, pie [13] aɪər Ireland, hire (= /aɪr/)
aɪ.ər higher, buyer [14]
MOUTH, loud, foul, down, how aʊər flour (= /aʊr/)
aʊ.ər flower [14]
ɛ DRESS, bet, fell, men [15] ɛr error, merry [15]
FACE, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər SQUARE, mare, scarce, cairn, Mary (= /eɪr/) [16]
eɪ.ər layer (one who lays) [14]
ɪ KIT, lid, fill, bin ɪr mirror, Sirius
FLEECE, seed, feel, mean, sea ɪər NEAR, beard, fierce, serious (= /iːr/) [17]
iː.ər freer
ɔː THOUGHT, Maud, dawn, fall, straw [18] ɔːr NORTH, born, war, Laura [19] [20]
ɔː.ər sawer
ɔɪ CHOICE, void, foil, coin, boy ɔɪər coir (= /ɔɪr/)
ɔɪ.ər employer [14]
GOAT, code, foal, bone, go [21] ɔər FORCE, more, boar, oral (= /oʊr/) [19] [20]
oʊ.ər mower
ʊ FOOT, good, full, woman ʊr courier
GOOSE, food, fool, soon, do ʊər boor, moor, tourist (= /uːr/) [19] [20]
uː.ər truer
juː cute, mule, puny, beauty, huge, tune [22] jʊər cure (= /juːr/)
juː.ər fewer
ʌ STRUT, bud, dull, gun [23] ɜːr NURSE, word, girl, fern, furry
ʌr hurry, nourish (in the UK)
Reduced vowels
ə COMMA, Rosa's, ago, quiet, focus ər LETTER, perceive
əl bottle (either [əl] or [l̩])
ən button (either [ən] or [n̩])
əm rhythm (either [əm] or [m̩])
i HAPPY, serious [24] (either /ɪ/ or /iː/) u situation (either /ʊ/ or /uː/)
[25] roses, enough [26] (either /ɪ/ or /ə/) ᵿ [25] beautiful, curriculum ([jᵿ]) [27] (either /ʊ/ or /ə/)
 
Stress Syllabification
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntəˈneɪʃən/, [28]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/ [29]
. /haɪər/ hire, /haɪ.ər/ higher [30]
ˌ

Notes