Help:IPA/Nahuatl

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Nahuatl pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. This pronunciation guide is based on the phonology of Classical Nahuatl, which is different from contemporary Nahuatl dialects.

PhonemeSpellingEnglish approximation
Consonants[1]
ʔh[2]the catch in "oh-oh"
jyyellow
kqu,[3] c[4]scan
cu,[5] uc[4]squall
ll[2]leave (not dark L as in "dull")
ɬl (before a voiceless consonant)play; Welsh ll
mmman
nn[6]nose
ppspan
sc,[3] z[4]sack
ʃxshoe
ttstand
t͡ɬtlsomewhat cheer
t͡ʃchchoo
t͡stzcats
whu[5], uh[4]witch
ʍhu[5], uh[4]which (as "hwich")
PhonemeSpellingEnglish approximation
Vowels
aabra
ā(long a)
eemet
ēmate
iicity
īsee
oogo[7]
ōgo
Stress
ˈPrimary stress nearly always[8] occurs on the penultimate (second to last) syllable. In any case, the IPA stress symbol is always placed immediately before the stressed syllable.
´The stressed vowel is pronounced with raised pitch, which is optionally indicated by an acute accent on the vowel of the stressed syllable.
Nahuatl has four possible syllable clusters CVC, CV, VC and V[9][10]
example: CVC-CVC-CV tlal-huac-tli[9]
Modern & Variant Orthography[11]
ModernVariant
Huītzilopōchtli, xiuhpōhualliVītzilopōchtli, xiuhpōvalli
huīpīlli, huei teocalliuīpīlli, uei teocalli
aztecah, azo, zaoc, zaaçtecah, aço, çaoc, ça
iyo, in, ipan, itzcuīntliyyo, yn, ypan, ytzcuīntli
cuahuitl, macuahuitlquahuitl, maquahuitl
tlahtohquehtlàtòquê

Notes

  1. ^ Consonants can be geminated, including /l/ (spelled as ll, but not pronounced as in Spanish) (Andrews 2003, p. 33).
  2. ^ a b No Nahuatl word begins with /l/ or /ʔ/ (Andrews 2003, p. 29; Karttunen 1992, p. XI).
  3. ^ a b Before e and i.
  4. ^ a b c d e All other cases.
  5. ^ a b c Before vowels.
  6. ^ /n/ is Nahuatl's most weakly pronounced consonant (Lockhart 2001, p. 112).
  7. ^ The Nahuatl /o/ is different from every English vowel, but the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of saw.
  8. ^ The only exception is vocative forms, in which case the final syllable is stressed.
  9. ^ a b Canger, U. Ochpaniztli and Classical Nahuatl syllable structure. University of Copenhagen.
  10. ^ Nahuatl words cannot start or end with two consonants. Only Nahuatl verbs can end in two vowels (Lockhart 2001, pp. 120-121).
  11. ^ Andrews 2003, p. 655-658
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