Help:IPA/English

Throughout Wikipedia, the pronunciation of words is indicated by means of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The following tables list the IPA symbols used for English words and pronunciations. Please note that several of these symbols are used in ways that are specific to Wikipedia and differ from those used by dictionaries.

If the IPA symbols are not displayed properly by your browser, see the links below.

If you are adding a pronunciation using this key, such pronunciations should generally be formatted using the template {{IPAc-en}}. The template provides tooltips for each symbol in the pronunciation. See the template page for instructions.

Key

If the words given as examples for two different symbols sound the same to you (for example, if you pronounce cot and caught the same, or do and dew, or marry and merry), you can pronounce those symbols the same in explanations of all words. The footnotes explain some of these mergers. (See also Dialect variation below.)

If there is an IPA symbol you are looking for that you do not see here, see Help:IPA, which is a more complete list. For a table listing all spellings of the sounds on this page, see English orthography § Sound-to-spelling correspondences. For help converting spelling to pronunciation, see English orthography § Spelling-to-sound correspondences.

Consonants
IPA Examples
b buy, cab
d dye, cad, ladder[1]
dj dew[2]
giant, badge
ð thy, breathe, father
f fan, caff
ɡ (ɡ)[3] guy, bag
h high, ahead
hw why[4]
j[5] yes, hallelujah
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal[6]
lj lute[2]
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
nj new[2]
ŋ sang, sink, singer
p pie, spy, cap
r[7] rye, try, very
s sigh, mass
sj consume[2]
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, latter[1]
tj tune[2]
China, catch
θ thigh, math
θj enthuse[2]
v vie, have
w wye, swine
z zoo, has
zj Zeus[2]
ʒ pleasure, vision, beige[8]
 
Marginal segments
IPA Examples
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[9]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʔʌʔoʊ/
ɒ̃ bon vivant[10]
æ̃ fin de siècle[10]
ɜː Möbius (UK only)[11]
Vowels
Full vowels ...followed by R[12]
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ɑː PALM, bra ɑːr START, star
ɒ LOT, pod, John, blockade[13] ɒr moral, forage[14]
æ TRAP, pad, tattoo[15] ær barrow, marry[16]
PRICE, ride, pie[17] aɪər Ireland, hire[18]
aɪ.ər higher, buyer[19]
MOUTH, loud, down, how[17] aʊər flour[18]
aʊ.ər flower[19]
ɛ DRESS, bet, prestige[20] ɛr error, merry[16][21][22]
FACE, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər SQUARE, mare, scarce, cairn, Mary[16][21][22][23]
eɪər player[19]
ɪ KIT, lid, historic ɪr mirror, Sirius[21][22]
FLEECE, seed, mean, pedigree, idea[24] ɪər NEAR, beard, fierce, serious[21][22][23][25]
iːər freer
GOAT, code, go, foal, follower[26][27] oʊər mower
ɔː THOUGHT, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[28] ɔːr NORTH, FORCE, horse, hoarse, aural[22][28][29][30]
ɔːər sawer
ɔɪ CHOICE, void, boy ɔɪər coir[18]
ɔɪ.ər employer[19]
ʊ FOOT, good, full ʊr courier[21][22]
GOOSE, food, tissue, cruel[24] ʊər boor, moor, tourist, CURE (/ˈkjʊər/)[21][22][23][25][30]
uːər truer
ʌ STRUT, bud, untidy, justiciable[31][32] ɜːr NURSE, word, girl, fern, furry, Berlin[33]
ʌr hurry, nourish[34]
Weak vowels and syllabic consonants[35]
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ə COMMA, ago, quiet, focus ər LETTER, perceive, history
əl bottle (either [əl] or [l̩])
ɪ roses, enough, Martin[36] ən button (either [ən] or [n̩])
əm rhythm (either [əm] or [m̩])
i HAPPY, mediocre (either /iː/ or /ɪ/)[37] serious, California (either /iːə/, /ɪ.ə/, or /jə/)[38]
u fruition (either /uː/ or /ʊ/)[27][37] influence (either /uːə/, /ʊ.ə/, or /wə/)[39]
 
Stress Syllabification
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntəˈneɪʃən/ . /ˈhaɪər/ hire, /ˈhaɪ.ər/ higher[40]
/ˈtæks.peɪər/ taxpayer
ˌ

Notes

  • The length mark is sometimes omitted in IPA transcriptions of English, in which vowel length is more variable than in e.g. German (see clipping for more information). In this system, it is retained so that the way we transcribe vowels such as /ɑː/ matches the way they are transcribed in British dictionaries and because the free vowels /ɑː, iː, uː, ɜːr/ are more distinct from /ɒ, ɪ, ʊ, ɛr/ when they are written with the length mark. Retaining it also allows to use the non-phonemic symbols ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩, which represent phonemic neutralization between the unstressed long /iː/ and /uː/ and the unstressed short /ɪ/ and /ʊ/.
  • The IPA stress mark (ˈ) comes before the syllable that has the stress, in contrast to stress marking in pronunciation keys of some dictionaries published in the United States.
  • Words in SMALL CAPITALS are the standard lexical sets. Words in the lexical sets BATH and CLOTH may be given two transcriptions, the former either with /ɑː/ or /æ/, the latter with /ɒ/ or /ɔː/.
Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Pang-chān:IPA/Eng-gí
ગુજરાતી: મદદ:IPA for English
မြန်မာဘာသာ: Wikipedia:IPA for English
Simple English: Help:Pronunciation