Help:IPA/Danish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Danish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

This guide follows the way reputable sources transcribe Danish.[1] In some cases, it radically differs from the prototypical values of IPA symbols. For instance, the plosives [b, d, ɡ] differ from [p, t, k] not by voicing (as in French or Russian) but purely by aspiration or affrication and all of them are voiceless (strict IPA: [p, t, k], [pʰ, tˢ, kʰ]), much like the plosives of Icelandic and Standard Chinese. Therefore, words like bog and pol are actually pronounced [ˈpɔwˀ] and [ˈpʰoːˀl] even though they are here transcribed as [ˈbɔwˀ] and [ˈpoːˀl].

See Danish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of the language.

Consonants
IPAExamplesEnglish approximations
bbog [ˈbɔwˀ]spare
ddåb [ˈdɔːˀb]start
ðøde [ˈøːðə]bathe
ð̩skinnede [ˈsɡenð̩ðə]the book (pronounced quickly)
ffod [ˈfoðˀ]foot
ɡgod [ˈɡoðˀ]scan
hhat [ˈhad]hat
kkone [ˈkoːnə]cone
llov [ˈlɒw]law
solen [ˈsoːˀl̩n]bottle
mmod [ˈmoðˀ]mood
København [købm̩ˈhɑwˀn]rhythm
nnode [ˈnoːðə]noon
vinden [ˈvenˀn̩]suddenly
ŋlang [ˈlɑŋˀ]long
ŋ̍ryggen [ˈʁœɡŋ̍]Washington
ppol [ˈpoːˀl]pole
ʁrød [ˈʁœðˀ]French parler
ssod [ˈsoðˀ]soon
ɕSjælland [ˈɕɛˌlanˀ][2]sheep
ttak [ˈtɑɡ]too
tjener [ˈtɕeːnɐ][2]cheer
vvåd [ˈvɔðˀ]vote
Semivowels
ɐ̯er [ˈæɐ̯][3]ear
jjord [ˈjoɐ̯ˀ], mig [ˈmɑj][3]you, day
whav [ˈhɑw] "ocean"[3]now
Vowels
IPAExamplesEnglish approximation
akat [ˈkad]hat
ɑtak [ˈtɑɡ]art
ɑːbarn [ˈbɑːˀn]father
ʌånd [ˈʌnˀ][4]off
ɒog [ˈɒw]
ɒːi går [iˈɡɒːˀ]dog
æfrisk [ˈfʁæsɡ]bet
æːgade [ˈɡæːðə]bed
efed [ˈfeðˀ] "fat"Somewhat like face
ɛven [ˈvɛn]
hel [ˈheːˀl]Somewhat like phase
ɛːhæl [ˈhɛːˀl]
itisse [ˈtisə]leaf
si [ˈsiːˀ]leave
oflod [ˈfloðˀ][4]Somewhat like oak
ɔost [ˈɔsd][4]
kone [ˈkoːnə]Somewhat like go
ɔːmåle [ˈmɔːlə]
ønød [ˈnøðˀ]Somewhat like nurse
œbønne [ˈbœnə]
ɶtør [ˈtɶɐ̯ˀ]
øːløber [ˈløːbɐ] "runner"Somewhat like fur
œːafgrøde [ˈawɡʁœːðə]
ɶːrøre [ˈʁɶːɐ]
uud [ˈuðˀ]boot
hule [ˈhuːlə]food
ytyk [ˈtyɡ]Somewhat like cute
synlig [ˈsyːnli]Somewhat like feud
Stress
ˈ  ˌhusmor [ˈhusˌmoɐ̯]
Stød
ˀti [ˈtiːˀ]button
Unstressed-only
ɐløber [ˈløːbɐ] "runner"but
əhoppe [ˈhʌbə]balance
ɪkage [ˈkæːɪ][5]hit
ʊmave [ˈmæːʊ][5]foot

References

  1. ^ The set of symbols used in this guide follows most closely the one used by Den Danske Ordbog, but it is also close to how Grønnum (2005) transcribes Danish.
  2. ^ a b [tɕ] is phonemically /tj/, and [ɕ] is phonemically /sj/.
  3. ^ a b c Diphthongs with an underlying long vowel always have stød, but the ones with an underlying short vowel do not. [ej, ɛj, æj, øj, æw, ow, ɔw] all have an underlying long vowel and so always have stød. Conversely, [ɑj, ʌj, uj, ɑw, ɒw] have an underlying short vowel and so never have stød. The other diphthongs (including all diphthongs ending with [ɐ̯]) appear both with and without stød (Grønnum (2005:294)).
  4. ^ a b c Both [o] and [ɔ] are allophones of the short /o/. Generally, the former appears in open syllables and the latter in closed ones, but there are exceptions such as flod [ˈfloðˀ] which has [o] instead of the expected [ɔ]. The short /ɔ/ is realized as [ʌ] (Basbøll (2005:50)).
  5. ^ a b [ɪ] and [ʊ] are assimilatory variants of [jə] and [wə], respectively.